Synonyms for achalasia or Related words with achalasia
Examples of "achalasia"
(; "a-" + "-chalasia" "no relaxation") is a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause a sphincter to remain closed and fail to open when needed. Without a modifier, "
" usually refers to
of the esophagus, which is also called esophageal
cardiae, cardiospasm, and esophageal aperistalsis.
can happen at various points along the gastrointestinal tract;
of the rectum, for instance, in Hirschsprung's disease.
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Patients with idiopathic
show a significant difference in the distribution of SNPs affecting VIPR1.
The failure of the lower esophagous sphincter to respond properly to swallowing is called
is an idiopathic motility disorder characterized by failure of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation as well as loss of peristalsis in the distal esophagus, which is mostly smooth muscle. Both of these features impair the ability of the esophagus to empty contents into the stomach. Patients usually complain of dysphagia to both solids and liquids. Dysphagia to liquids, in particular, is a characteristic of
. Other symptoms of
include regurgitation, night coughing, chest pain, weight loss, and heartburn. The combination of
, adrenal insufficiency, and alacrima (lack of tear production) in children is known as the triple A (Allgrove) syndrome. In most cases the cause is unknown (idiopathic), but in some regions of the world,
can also be caused by Chagas disease due to infection by "Trypanosoma cruzi".
Though this surgery does not correct the underlying cause and does not completely eliminate
symptoms, the vast majority of patients find that the surgery greatly improves their ability to eat and drink. It is considered the definitive treatment for
is a major exception to usual pattern of dysphagia in that swallowing of fluid tends to cause more difficulty than swallowing solids. In
, there is idiopathic destruction of parasympathetic ganglia of the Auerbach's (Myenteric) plexus of the entire esophagus, which results in functional narrowing of the lower esophagus, and peristaltic failure throughout its length.
The cause of most cases of
is unknown. LES pressure and relaxation are regulated by excitatory (e.g., acetylcholine, substance P) and inhibitory (e.g., nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide) neurotransmitters. People with
lack nonadrenergic, noncholinergic, inhibitory ganglion cells, causing an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. The result is a hypertensive nonrelaxed esophageal sphincter.
In human pathology a condition known as
may predispose a person to slowly develop megaesophagus.
is due to the loss of ganglion cells of the myenteric plexus. It occurs mostly in middle aged adults. There is a marked lack of contraction within the muscles involved in peristalsis with a constant contraction of the lower esophageal sphincter. Dilation of the esophagus results in difficulty swallowing. Retention of food bolus is also noted. Chagas disease is one cause of megaesophagus in humans.
also predisposes to esophageal carcinoma.
is a motor disorder of the esophagus characterized by decrease in ganglion cell density in the myenteric plexus. The cause of the lesion is unknown.
Due to the similarity of symptoms,
can be mistaken for more common disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hiatus hernia, and even psychosomatic disorders.
has risen to approximately 1.6 per 100,000 in some populations. Disease affects mostly adults between ages 30s and 50s.
In a Nissen fundoplication, also called a complete fundoplication, the fundus is wrapped the entire 360 degrees around the esophagus. In contrast, surgery for
is generally accompanied by either a "Dor" or "Toupet" partial fundoplication, which is less likely than a Nissen wrap to aggravate the dysphagia that characterizes
. In a Dor (anterior) fundoplication, the fundus is laid over the top of the esophagus; while in a Toupet (posterior) fundoplication, the fundus is wrapped around the back of the esophagus.
The most common form is primary
, which has no known underlying cause. It is due to the failure of distal esophageal inhibitory neurons. However, a small proportion occurs secondary to other conditions, such as esophageal cancer or Chagas disease (an infectious disease common in South America).
affects about one person in 100,000 per year. There is no gender predominance for the occurrence of disease.
Triple-A syndrome (AAA), also known as
-Addisonianism-Alacrima syndrome or Allgrove syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder. In most cases, there is no family history of it. The syndrome was discovered by Jeremy Allgrove and colleagues in 1978. Triple A stands for
-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome. Alacrima is usually the earliest manifestation. It is a progressive disorder that can take years to develop the full blown clinical picture.
Autopsy and myotomy specimens have, on histological examination, shown an inflammatory response consisting of CD3/CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes, variable numbers of eosinophils and mast cells, loss of ganglion cells, and neurofibrosis; these events appear to occur early in
. Thus, it seems there is an autoimmune context to
, most likely caused by viral triggers. Other studies suggest hereditary, neurodegenerative, genetic and infective contributions.
The per-oral endoscopic myotomy, or POEM, is a surgical procedure for the treatment of
wherein the inner circular layer of the lower esophageal sphincter is divided through a submucosal tunnel. This enables food and liquids to pass into the stomach a process that is impaired in
. The tunnel is created, and the myotomy performed, using a flexible [endoscope]], meaning the entire procedure can be done without external incisions.
Cricopharyngeal myotomy is a surgical sectioning of the cricopharyngeus muscle, also known as the upper esophageal sphincter, that has been advocated for the treatment of cricopharyngeal spasm, or cricopharyngeal
, that leads to cervical dysphagia in the clinical setting.
This is a somewhat challenging operation, and surgeons have reported improved outcomes after their first 50 patients. An author search at Google Scholar can be used to find studies on a surgeon's past experience with
2) Solid plus liquid dysphagia is due to Esophageal motility disorder (or dysmotility) either upper esophagus (Mysthenia Gravis, stoke, or Dermatomyositis) or Lower esophagus (systemic sclerosis, CREST syndrome, or
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