Synonyms for adelgidae or Related words with adelgidae
Examples of "adelgidae"
Generally, Phylloxeridae is placed together with
in the superfamily Phylloxeroidea.
Phylloxeridae together with
form the oviparous aphids group which is monophyletic and is sister group to Aphidoidea (other aphids).
Phylloxeridae is part of the order Hemiptera and suborder Sternorrhyncha. But there is a lot of controversy when it comes to its position and phylogeny within this lineage especially in regard to its relatives namely the Adelgids (
) and Aphids (Aphididae). The following quote is an illustration: “Almost as many classiﬁcations of aphids have been proposed as there have been practicing taxonomists”. Aphids here include
, Aphididae and Phylloxeridae. In the past these three families mentioned above have been placed together in the same superfamily Aphidoidea.
Aphids, adelgids, and phylloxerids are very closely related, and are all within the suborder Sternorrhyncha, the plant-sucking bugs. They are either placed in the insect superfamily Aphidoidea or into the superfamily Phylloxeroidea which contains the family
and the family Phylloxeridae.
The species feeds on aphids such as "Eucallipterus tiliae", "Tuberculatus annulatus", "Euceraphis betulae", "Cavariella konoi", "Acyrthosiphon ignotum", "A. pisum", and "Macrosiphoniella artemisiae". They prefer pine aphids (family
), and are attracted to the scent of pine. The defensive alkaloid compound 2-dehydrococcinelline has been isolated and identified from this species.
The Phylloxeroidea is a small superfamily of the Hemiptera closely related to the aphids, and often traditionally included in the Aphidoidea, which is the sister taxon. The two extant families are the pine and spruce aphids (
, including the former family Chermesidae, or "Chermidae") and the phylloxerans (Phylloxeridae), including Vine Phylloxera, a serious pest of grapes.
However, most recent studies using both morphological and molecular data to discuss the phylogeny and evolutionary history within the Sternorrhyncha lineage suggest that representatives of
, Aphididae and Phylloxeridae have evolved independently and should not be combined in superfamilies. The debate is still open and more research is needed to clear the Sternorrhyncha phylogeny out.
The pineapple gall adelgid is endemic to Europe, belonging to the 'woolly adelgid' group; it is also widely distributed in the north-eastern United States. Spruce gall aphid, eastern spruce pineapple gall adelges and eastern spruce gall aphid are alternative names. This insect belongs to the superfamily Aphidoidea, and family
. It is the primary pest of Norway Spruce. Another similar species, the Cooley spruce gall adelgid, is indigenous to North America. This adelgid usually affects Colorado Blue, Sitka, Englemann, and Oriental spruces.
Excepting galls formed by the spruce gall midge, galls are caused by aphid-like insects of the family Phylloxeridae (
) commonly known as the spruce gall adelgids. They have complex life cycles, some species feeding exclusively on spruce, others feeding on spruce and an alternate conifer. However, galls characteristic of each species are formed only on spruce. Six generations are usually needed to complete the 2-year cycle, and in the case of species having an alternate host, winged adults about 2 mm long are formed only in the generations that move from one host to the other.
is a small family of the Hemiptera closely related to the aphids, and often traditionally included in the Aphidoidea with the Phylloxeridae. Adelgids are often known as "woolly conifer aphids". The family is composed of species associated with pine spruce or other conifers, known respectively as "pine aphids" or "spruce aphids". This family includes the former family Chermesidae, or "Chermidae", the name of which was declared invalid by the ICZN in 1955. There is still considerable debate as to the number of genera within the family, and the classification is still unstable and inconsistent among competing authors.
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