Synonyms for adoptionist or Related words with adoptionist
Examples of "adoptionist"
He first came to prominence in 790, when his christological teachings were criticized as
by Alcuin. The Council of Frankfurt in 794 condemned his teachings as heretical.
In "The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture", Bart D. Ehrman argues that
theology may date back almost to the time of Jesus.
Artemon (fl. ca. 230 AD), a prominent Christian teacher in Rome, who held
, or Nontrinitarian views. We know little about his life for certain.
view was later developed by adherents of the form of Monarchianism that is represented by Theodotus of Byzantium and Paul of Samosata.
So even at this early stage we find evidence of proto-Arianism (Justin's view) and proto-Socinianism (the
view), though they were, as yet, not fully formed. Both of these theologies have similarities to latter day Unitarianism.
Nothing is known in detail of his reign. The
dispute was raging between Elipandus, Archbishop of Toledo, and Beatus of Liébana and even occasioned the intervention of Charlemagne. Mauregatus also sent back an invading Muslim force.
It is unclear whether this text advocates an
or docetist Christology, but based on its literary parallels with the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, it may well subscribe to the latter.
The first edition compilation was completed prior to the
controversy, and it is therefore unlikely that Beatus intended the manuscript to stand as an indictment of the doctrine.
The chief concerns of the council were the Frankish response to the
movement in Spain and the Second Council of Nicaea (787), which had been held by the Byzantine Empress Irene of Athens and had dealt with iconoclasm and with which Charlemagne took issue because no Frankish churchmen had been invited. Ultimately, the council condemned the
heresy and revoked the Nicene Council's decrees regarding holy icons, condemning both iconodulism (veneration of icons) and iconoclasm (destruction of icons), "allowing that images could be useful educational devices, but denying that they were worthy of veneration."
He is best remembered today as the author of the "Commentary on the Apocalypse", written in 776, then revised in 784 and again in 786. He corresponded with Alcuin, and took part in the
controversy, criticizing the views of Felix of Urgel and Elipandus of Toledo. Archbishop Elipandus claimed that in respect to his human nature – Christ was the "adoptive" Son of God.
Little is known of the tenets of the Paulicians except the reports of opponents and a few fragments of Sergius' letters they have preserved. Some argue that their system was dualistic, although others have argued that it was actually
This small kingdom was a milestone in the fight against the
heresy, with Beatus of Liébana as a major figure. In the time of Alfonso II, the shrine of Santiago de Compostela was "found." The pilgrimage to Santiago, Camino de Santiago, was a major nexus within Europe, and many pilgrims (and their money) passed through Asturias on their way to Santiago de Compostela.
Paulicians (, "Pawłikeanner"; ; Arab sources: "Baylakānī", "al Bayālika") were a Christian sect, also accused by medieval sources of being
, Gnostic, and quasi-Manichaean Christian. They flourished between 650 and 872 in Armenia and the eastern themata of the Byzantine Empire. According to medieval Byzantine sources, the group's name was derived from the 3rd century Bishop of Antioch, Paul of Samosata.
Among its most notable events are Bishop Felix's
revolt, the coup of Bishop Esclua and the overthrowing of the bishop by members of aristocratic families (namely Salla i Ermengol del Conflent, Eribau i Folcs dels Cardona, Guillem Guifré de Cerdanya and Ot de Pallars) between the years 981 and 1122.
Despite the shared name of "Adoptionism" the Spanish
Christology appears to have differed sharply from the Adoptionism of early Christianity. Spanish advocates predicated the term "adoptivus" of Christ only in respect to his humanity; once the divine Son "emptied himself" of divinity and "took the form of a servant" (Philippians 2:7), Christ's human nature was "adopted" as divine.
Charlemagne as well grew concerned by reports of heresy in his new Pyrenees territories, and commissioned his own response to the
teaching, spearheaded by his erudite court scholar Alcuin of York. This Carolingian response developed in three regional councils called by the king in 792 (Regensburg), 795 (Frankfurt), and 799 (Aachen).
The baptismal scene of the gospel text (13.7) is a harmony of the Synoptic Gospels, but one in which the Holy Spirit is said to descend to Jesus in the form of a dove and "enter into him". This divine election at the time of his baptism is known as an
Christology, and it is emphasized by the quotation of Psalm 2:7, as found in the "Western text" of Luke 3:22, "You are my son, this day I have begotten you." The Spirit entering into Jesus and the great light on the water are thought to be based on the prophecies of Isaiah 61:1 and 9:1, respectively. His
son-ship is characterized by the belief that Jesus was a mere man, who, by virtue of his perfect righteousness, was imbued with the divinity of the eternal Christ through his Baptism in order to carry out the prophetic task for which he had been chosen.
Due to recorded predictions of the destruction of the temple, the Gospel of Mark is believed by many critical scholars to have been composed around or shortly after the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70 due to prophecies assumed to be "ex postfacto" regarding the destruction of the Second Temple, and critical scholarly consensus maintains that it was the first written gospel, though the earliest traditional consensus puts the Gospel of Matthew as the first of the canonical gospels. The phrase "Son of God" is not present in some early manuscripts at . Ehrman uses this omission to support the notion that the title "Son of God" is not used for Jesus until his baptism, and that Mark reflects an
view. The words, "Today I have begotten you," are omitted from Mark, however, and it is therefore generally believed to have less
tendencies than the lost, non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews.
Elipandus ("ca". 716-805), bishop of Muslim-controlled Toledo, was the first well-known advocate of this “
” christology, which he articulated in response to the position of another Spanish writer, Migetius. Migetius apparently taught a form of Trinitarian theology which Elipandus found troubling; in his “Letter to Migetius,” Elipandus defended the single "persona" of Christ in the face of this issue. Contrary to what the label “
” might suggest, Elipandus accepted the full humanity and divinity of the person of Jesus Christ; Elipandus’ use of "adoptivus" in reference to Christ appears in his exegesis of the "kenotic hymn" of Philippians 2:6-7. Here, Elipandus argued that Christ, after “emptying himself” of divinity and becoming a human being, was “Son of God” by virtue of "adoption":
theology had its roots in Gothic Arianism, which denied the divinity of Jesus, and in Hellenistic religion, with examples of heroes like Heracles who, after their death attained the apotheosis. Likewise, as Elipandus's bishopric of Toledo was at the time within the Muslim Caliphate of Cordoba, Islamic beliefs which acknowledged Jesus as a Prophet, but not as the Son of God, influenced the formation of adoptionism. However, the
theology opposed strongly by Beatus from his abbey in Santo Toribio de Liébana. At the same time, Beatus strengthened the links between Asturias, the Holy See, and the Carolingian Empire, and was supported in his theological struggle by the Pope and by his friend Alcuin of York, an Anglo-Saxon scholar who had settled among the Carolingian court in Aachen.
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