Synonyms for adulitanum or Related words with adulitanum
Examples of "adulitanum"
G.W.B. Huntingford suggests that he was the ruler who erected the anonymous inscription at Adulis known as the "Monumentum
Munro-Hay also suggests that Sembrouthes may have been the ruler who erected the anonymous "Monumentum
". The latter is an inscription at Adulis that Cosmas Indicopleustes made a copy of for king Kaleb of Axum.
GDRT has been equated with the anonymous king of the Monumentum
, which would date his reign c. 200 – c. 230. However, the two rulers are usually thought to be distinct. However the French scholar Christian Robin, studying the inscriptions at al-Mis`al in Yemen, has shown that GDRT, and his successor `DBH, lived in the earlier half of the 3rd century.
According to Cosmas Indicopleustes, an ancient inscription known as "Monumentum
" by an anonymous King of Adulis recounts that he had fought the Seseans and subdued them after engaging them on a high ground. The inscription also details the King boasting about bringing world peace by way of conquest and afterwards returning to Sesea, which had become a tributary.
According to Richard Pankhurst, Adwa derives its name from "Adi Awa" (or "Wa"), "Village of the Awa"; the Awa are an ethnic group mentioned in the anonymous Monumentum
that once stood at Adulis. Francisco Alvares records that the Portuguese diplomatic mission passed Adwa, which he called "Houses of St. Michael," in August 1520.
When not expounding his cosmology, Cosmas proves to be an interesting and reliable guide, providing a window into a world that has since disappeared. He happened to be in Ethiopia when the King of Axum was preparing a 522 or 525 AD military expedition to attack Jewish Arabs in Yemen. He recorded now-vanished inscriptions such as the Monumentum
(which he mistakenly attributed to Ptolemy III Euergetes).
Cosmas Indicopleustes records two inscriptions he found here in the 6th century: the first records how Ptolemy Euergetes (247–222 BC) used war elephants captured in the region to gain victories in his wars abroad; the second, known as the "Monumentum
", was inscribed in the 27th year of a king of Axum, perhaps named Sembrouthes, boasting of his victories in Arabia and northern Ethiopia.
Akele Guzai's name has been connected by some to the "Gaze" of the Monumentum
(which later medieval Greek notes in the margins associate with the Aksumite people). If the note regarding the Gaze is accurate, it would connect the name of Akele Guzai to the "Agʿazyān" or "Agʿazi" (Ge'ez speakers) of the Kingdom of in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, who later became the Tigrayans and the Tigrinyas. This connection has been rejected by linguists in modern times, however, due to the lack of the middle voiced pharyngeal fricative in the triliteral roots, which is usually preserved in Tigrinya, the primary language of Akele Guzai.
Cosmology aside, Cosmas proves to be an interesting and reliable guide, providing a window into a world that has since disappeared. He happened to be in Adulis on the Red Sea Coast of modern Eritrea at the time (c. 525 AD) when the King of Axum was preparing a military expedition to attack the Jewish king Dhu Nuwas in Yemen, who had recently been persecuting Christians. On request of the Axumite king and in preparation for this campaign, he recorded now-vanished inscriptions such as the Monumentum
(which he mistakenly attributed to Ptolemy III Euergetes).
The Agaw are perhaps first mentioned in the 3rd-century AD "Monumentum
", an Aksumite inscription recorded by Cosmas Indicopleustes in the 6th century. The inscription refers to a people called "Athagaus" (or Athagaous), perhaps from ʿAd Agaw, meaning "sons of Agaw." The Athagaous first turn up as one of the peoples conquered by the unknown king who inscribed the "Monumentum
". The Agaw are later mentioned in an inscription of the 4th-century Aksumite King Ezana and 6th-century King Kaleb. Based on this evidence, a number of experts embrace a theory first stated by Edward Ullendorff and Carlo Conti Rossini that they are the original inhabitants of much of the northern Ethiopian highlands, and were either forced out of their original settlements or assimilated by Semitic-speaking Tigray-Tigrinya and Amhara peoples. Cosmas Indicopleustes also noted in his "Christian Topography" that a major gold trade route passed through the region "Agau". The area referred to seems to be an area east of the Tekezé River and just south of the Semien Mountains, perhaps around Lake Tana.
The Semiens are remarkable as being one of the few spots in Africa where snow regularly falls. First mentioned in the "Monumentum
" of the 4th century AD (which described them as "inaccessible mountains covered with snow" and where soldiers walked up to their knees in snow), the presence of snow was undeniably witnessed by the 17th century Jesuit priest Jerónimo Lobo. Although the later traveler James Bruce claims that he had never witnessed snow in the Semien Mountains, the 19th century explorer Henry Salt not only recorded that he saw snow there (on 9 April 1814), but explained the reason for Bruce's failure to see snow in these mountains – Bruce had ventured no further than the foothills into the Semiens.
was an ancient Adulite inscription in Greek and Ge'ez depicting the military campaigns of an Adulite king. The monument was found in the port city state of Adulis (in modern-day Eritrea). Though the inscription and the monument have never been located by archaeologists, it is known about through the copying of the inscription by Cosmas Indicopleustes, a 6th-century Greek traveller-monk. The original text was inscribed on a throne in Adulis (Ge'ez: መንበር "manbar") written in Ge'ez in both the Ge'ez script and Sabean alphabet, while the Greek was written in the Greek alphabet. Seeing that the text was in Greek and followed an inscription about King Ptolemy III Euergetes's conquests in Asia, Cosmas Indicopleustes mistook the Aksumite inscription for the continuation of Ptolemy's.
Agame is one of the oldest regions of Ethiopia, being part of the Kingdom of D'mt in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea that would develop into the Kingdom of Aksum.It was a main center of Aksumite culture (second only to Western Tigray, where the capital was located), with a distinct sub-culture that separated the two regions from that of Western Tigray (Shire, Axum, Yeha), Central Eritrea (Seraye, Hamasien, Akele Guzai and Adulis), and frontier areas in northern Eritrea. The first mention of Agame was in the Monumentum
of the early 3rd century, where it is listed as one of the districts conquered by the unnamed king of the inscription; however, its next mention is not until the sixteenth century in a charter written during the reign of Emperor Lebna Dengel. During medieval times, Agame was part of a larger province of Bur in Ethiopia, which also included some northeastern Afar lowlands, and the Buri Peninsula; Agame and Akkele Guzay were part of "Upper" (La'ilay) Bur, while the lowlands were further distinguished as "Lower" (Tahtay).
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