Synonyms for amenorrhoea or Related words with amenorrhoea
Examples of "amenorrhoea"
Breastfeeding is a common cause of secondary
, and often the condition lasts for over six months. Breastfeeding typically lasts longer than lactational
, and the duration of
varies depending on how often a women breastfeeds. Lactational
has been advocated as a method of family planning, especially in developing countries where access to other methods of contraception may be limited. Breastfeeding is said to prevent more births in the developing world than any other method of birth control or contraception. Lactational
is 98% percent effective as a method of preventing pregnancy in the first six months postpartum.
(BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrhœa, is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Physiological states of
are seen, most commonly, during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding), the latter also forming the basis of a form of contraception known as the lactational
method. Outside of the reproductive years there is absence of menses during childhood and after menopause.
When a woman is experiencing
, an eating disorder, and osteoporosis together, this is called female athlete triad syndrome. A lack of eating causes
and bone loss leading to osteopenia and sometimes progressing to osteoporosis.
is a symptom with many potential causes.
By the end of their third year of internment, most women suffered from
due to malnutrition.
There are two primary ways to classify
. Types of
are classified as primary or secondary, or based on functional "compartments". The latter classification relates to the hormonal state of the patient that hypo-, eu-, or hypergonadotropic (whereby interruption to the communication between gonads and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) causes FSH levels to be either low, normal or high).
During pregnancy and for some time after childbirth, menstruation does not occur; this state is known as
. If menstruation has not resumed, fertility is low during lactation. The average length of postpartum
is longer when certain breastfeeding practices are followed; this may be done intentionally as birth control.
Later in life, secondary amyloidosis may occur. Delayed puberty and secondary
are not uncommon. Hoarseness due to inflammation of the laryngeal cartilage has also been reported.
The use of opiates (such as heroin) on a regular basis has also been known to cause
in longer term users.
Looking at Hypothalamic
, studies have provided that the administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) might correct abnormalities of Functional Hypothalamic
(FHA) related to the condition of stress-related
. This involves the repair of the PI3K signaling pathway, which facilitates the integration of metabolic and neural signals regulating gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH). In other words, it regulates the neuronal activity and expression of neuropeptide systems that promote GnRH release. However, SSRI therapy represents a possible hormonal solution to just one hormonal condition of hypothalamic
. Furthermore, because the condition involves the inter workings of many different neurotransmitters, much research is still to be done on presenting hormonal treatment that would counteract the hormonal affects.
The social effects of
on a person vary significantly.
is often associated with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders, which have their own effects. If secondary
is triggered early in life, for example through excessive exercise or weight loss, menarche may not return later in life. A woman in this situation may be unable to become pregnant, even with the help of drugs. Long-term
leads to an estrogen deficiency which can bring about menopause at an early age. The hormone estrogen plays a significant role in regulating calcium loss after ages 25–30. When her ovaries no longer produce estrogen because of
, a woman is more likely to suffer rapid calcium loss, which in turn can lead to osteoporosis. Increased testosterone levels cause by
may lead to body hair growth and decreased breast size. Increased levels of androgens, especially testosterone, can also lead to ovarian cysts. Some research among amenorrhoeic runners indicates that the loss of menses may be accompanied by a loss of self-esteem.
Women who perform considerable amounts of exercise on a regular basis or lose a significant amount of weight are at risk of developing hypothalamic (or 'athletic')
. Functional Hypothalamic
(FHA) can be caused by stress, weight loss, and/or excessive exercise. Many women who diet or who exercise at a high level do not take in enough calories to expend on their exercise as well as to maintain their normal menstrual cycles. The threshold of developing
appears to be dependent on low energy availability rather than absolute weight because a critical minimum amount of stored, easily mobilized energy is necessary to maintain regular menstrual cycles.
can also be caused by physical deformities. One example of this is Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome, the second-most common cause of primary
. The syndrome is characterized by Müllerian agenesis. In MRKH Syndrome, the Müllerian ducts do not develop, which prevents menstruation. The syndrome usually develops during the first trimester of pregnancy. MRI techniques can be helpful in determining the extent of the problem. Women may recover from MRKH syndrome, but other times primary
, which is characteristic of the disorder, may prevent pregnancy for life.
Certain medications, particularly contraceptive medications, can induce
in a healthy woman. The lack of menstruation usually begins shortly after beginning the medication and can take up to a year to resume after stopping a medication. Hormonal contraceptives that contain only progestogen like the oral contraceptive Micronor, and especially higher-dose formulations like the injectable Depo Provera commonly induce this side-effect. Extended cycle use of combined hormonal contraceptives also allow suppression of menstruation. Patients who use and then cease using contraceptives like the combined oral contraceptive pill may experience secondary
as a withdrawal symptom. The link is not well understood, as studies have found no difference in hormone levels between women who develop
as a withdrawal symptom following the cessation of OCOP use and women who experience secondary
because of other reasons. New contraceptive pills, like continuous oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) which do not have the normal 7 days of placebo pills in each cycle, have been shown to increase rates of
in women. Studies show that women are most likely to experience
after 1 year of treatment with continuous OCP use.
Turner syndrome is characterized by primary
, premature ovarian failure, streak gonads and infertility. However, technology (especially oocyte donation) provides the opportunity of pregnancy in these patients.
Treatments vary based on the underlying condition. Key issues are problems of surgical correction if appropriate and oestrogen therapy if oestrogen levels are low. For those who do not plan to have biological children, treatment may be unnecessary if the underlying cause of the
is not threatening to their health. However, in the case of athletic
, deficiencies in estrogen and leptin often simultaneously result in bone loss, potentially leading to osteoporosis.
(menstrual cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems such as the congenital absence of the uterus, failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells. Also, delay in pubertal development will lead to primary
. It is defined as an absence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14 with no menarche or normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age.
Anti-psychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia have been known to cause
as well. New research suggests that adding a dosage of Metformin to an anti-psychotic drug regimen can restore menstruation. Metformin decreases resistance to the hormone insulin, as well as levels of prolactin, testosterone, and lutenizing hormone (LH). Metformin also decreases the LH/FSH ratio. Results of the study on Metformin further implicate the regulation of these hormones as a main cause of secondary
Manjula Anagani is an Indian gynecologist and obstetrician specializing in minimally invasive surgeries. She is credited with innovations in minimally invasive surgeries on "neo-vagina formation", primary "
" and a stem cell procedure for "endometrial regeneration".
A person with MRKH typically discovers the condition when, during puberty years, the menstrual cycle does not start (primary
). Some find out earlier through surgeries for other conditions, such as a hernia.
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