Synonyms for antipope_victor or Related words with antipope_victor
Examples of "antipope_victor"
He was a leading figure in the synod of Pavia in 1160, where the
IV was recognized by some of the Cardinals, with the support of the imperial legate.
His real name was Giovanni, Abbot of Struma. He was a strong and early supporter of Frederick Barbarossa, and also supported
IV, who made him a cardinal-bishop of Albano.
His administration of justice was unforgiving. While he was away in Italy working for the recognition of the
IV in 1159, the leading citizens rebelled. When he returned, he was murdered in front of the monastery of St. Jakob. He was buried in the church of St. Maria ad gradus (St. Mary of the Steps).
Peter also worked on behalf of Pope Alexander III in his struggles with
, who was contending for the position of Pope. Because of these efforts, Peter was later appointed to assist in negotiations between King Louis VII of France and King Henry II of England. He died while doing so, at the monastery at Bellevaux, France, in 1174.
Victor IV (born Octavian or Octavianus: "Ottaviano dei Crescenzi Ottaviani di Monticelli") (1095 - 1164) was elected as a Ghibelline antipope in 1159, following the death of Pope Adrian IV and the election of Alexander III. His election was supported by the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. He took the name Victor IV, not accounting for
IV of 1138 because of that antipope's short tenure.
Eberhard was Archbishop of Salzburg, Austria. Eberhard was born to a noble family of Nuremberg, Germany, he became a Benedictine in 1125 at Pruffening, Germany. Later he was made Abbot of Biburg near Regensburg. Eberhard was later appointed Archbishop of Salzburg in 1146. He rose to fame as a mediator when Pope Alexander III was faced with the “Investiture Controversy”, led by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and
IV. Ebarherd died in 1164, returning from another peace keeping mission.
Having obtained his liberty in 1158, Eskil returned home, where he found King Waldemar sole sovereign. When the latter took the part of the
, Eskil, faithful to Alexander III, took refuge in foreign parts. Excepting a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he lived in France (Clairvaux), in close proximity to the pope. In 1164 he consecrated Stephen of Alvastra, a Cistercian monk, first Archbishop of Uppsala. Year later, Benedictine Fulco was appointed by Eskil as the Bishop of Estonia.
Saint Galdino della Sala (c. 1096 – 18 April 1176), or Saint Galdinus (or "Galdimus"), was a Roman Catholic saint from Milan in northern Italy. He was a cardinal elevated in 1165 and he also served as Archbishop of Milan from 1166 to his death in 1176. He was a staunch supporter both of Pope Alexander III, and of Milan and its neighbours in Lombardy, in their joint and parallel struggles against the
IV, supported by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.
He was a strong supporter of the Roman papacy in the schism that erupted in 1159 after the death of Pope Adrian IV. Pope Alexander III was the Roman candidate, while
IV was supported by Frederick Barbarossa and his cardinals. Galdino's Milanese church supported Alexander III, and Galdino, as archdeacon of the church, took a very public stand. Frederick came to besiege Milan and reduced it within six months.
Blessed Giovanni de Surdis Cacciafronte (1125 - 16 March 1184) was an Italian Roman Catholic priest and bishop from the Order of Saint Benedict. He served as the Bishop of Mantua from 1174 until his resignation in 1177 and held the position of Bishop of Vicenza from 1179 until his murder. The schism that
IV caused enabled him to proclaim his support for Pope Alexander III though leading to his removal from a position at the behest of Frederick Barbarossa.
During the Middle Ages several popes visited Besançon, among them pope Leo IX who consecrated the altar of the old Cathedral of St. Etienne in 1050, and Eugenius III, who in 1148 consecrated the church of St. Jean, the new cathedral. A council was held at Besançon in 1162, presided over by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, in the interest of the
IV against Pope Alexander III. Guido of Burgundy who was pope from 1119 to 1123 under the name of Calixtus II, and the Jesuit Claude-Adrien Nonnotte (1711–1793), an adversary of Voltaire, were natives of Besançon.
In 1164 Frederick took what are believed to be the relics of the "Biblical Magi" (the Wise Men or Three Kings) from the Basilica di Sant'Eustorgio in Milan and gave them as a gift (or as loot) to the Archbishop of Cologne, Rainald of Dassel. The relics had great religious significance and could be counted upon to draw pilgrims from all over Christendom. Today they are kept in the Shrine of the Three Kings in the Cologne cathedral. After the death of the
IV, Frederick supported antipope Paschal III, but he was soon driven from Rome, leading to the return of Pope Alexander III in 1165.
The main support in Rome for Innocent III was from the powerful Roman Tusculum families, who had set up the two previous antipopes -
IV (1159–1164) and his successor, Paschal III (1164–1168). The brother of the late Victor IV, out of hatred for Alexander III, gave Lando a well-fortified castle at Palombara to defend against Alexander's supporters. A few months later however, Cardinal Hugo successfully bribed the guards to gain the castle. Innocent III and his supporters were then locked up for life in the monastery of La Cava in January 1180.
The late king divided his domains between his two surviving sons born from his first marriage to Berenguela of Barcelona: Sancho III obtained Castile and Ferdinand II received León. The relationship between Richeza and her stepsons wasn't good, especially after King Sancho III declared war on Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, father of Alfonso (later King of Aragon), who was betrothed to Richeza's daughter Sancha. The unstable relations of King Ferdinand II with the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa (cousin of Richeza) and the
IV added further difficulties to the Dowager Queen, who finally decided to move to the Kingdom of Aragon in 1159.
His family acquired the fortress of Tusculum from Ptolemy II somehow before December 1152, when he sold his rights over Tusculum to Pope Eugene III. In 1155, he acted on behalf of Adrian IV in negotiations with Frederick Barbarossa. In 1156, he was at Benevento to accept the submission of William I of Sicily to the pope. This submission resulted in the confirmation of the Treaty of Benevento. After the papal election of 7 September 1159, Oddone wrote to Louis VII of France exhorting him to support Alexander III. When Alexander was arrested by supporters of the imperialist
IV, it was Oddone who freed him and sent to safety in Campania.
He was well-educated as a child and his desire to pursue the ecclesiastical life was well received at home. Cacciafronte entered the Order of Saint Benedict in 1141 at their convent of San Lorenzo in Cremona and was later ordained to the priesthood before being appointed as the prior of San Vittore - connected to San Lorenzo - and later being made as the abbot of San Lorenzo itself from 1155 until 1159. The schism that
IV caused - with the support of Frederick Barbarossa - caused the priest to affirm his ardent support of Pope Alexander III. He was banished from his convent after Barbarossa learned that he had supported the pope.
The double papal election, 1159 which resulted in the election of Pope Alexander III and
IV (1159-1164), created a schism in the Catholic Church that lasted almost twenty years (until 1178). The schism was a result of the rules concerning the papal elections, which required the unanimity among the electors for the valid election. In 1159 the cardinals were unable to achieve compromise and divided into two parties, and each of them elected their own pope. In August 1178 Antipope Callixtus III, the successor of Victor IV, finally submitted to Alexander III. In the following year Alexander III celebrated the Third Lateran Council, which promulgated the decree "Licet de evitanda discordia". To avoid the schism in the future the decree established, that the pope is elected with the majority of two thirds, if the unanimity can not be achieved. It confirmed also that the cardinals are the sole electors of the pope. Both these rules are still in force today.
In 1154 – 1155 Hillin accompanied Barbarossa on the Emperor's first expedition into Italy. In December 1154 he took part in an Imperial Diet at Roncaglia. On 18 June 1155, Hillin was one of the prelates attending Barbarossa's imperial coronation by Pope Adrian IV, and in October of that year was appointed as Adrian's papal legate for Germany. In June 1156 he enjoyed the privilege of crowning Beatrice of Burgundy as queen in Worms. After Adrian's death on 1 September 1159 amid rising tensions between the Imperial and Papal parties, Hillin lent his support in the disputed papal election to Barbarossa and his
IV rather than to the majority-elected "Sicilian" candidate, Pope Alexander III; Victor made him legate for his support. After Victor's death in 1164, however, Hillin's support for the imperial party wavered, and in 1165, the Archbishop went over to the side of Alexander.
Gregorio della Suburra (died 1162/63) was an Italian cardinal, created by Pope Innocent II in 1140 as priest of the title of S. Maria in Trastevere. He was nephew of Pope Anastasius IV, who promoted him to suburbicarian see of Sabina in September 1154. After the double papal election in September 1159 he supported the obedience of Pope Alexander III. He became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1159, after the deposition of Cardinal Icmar of Tusculum, who had consecrated
IV (1159-1164) and joined his obedience. He was papal vicar at Rome in 1160. His name appears for the last time in the papal bull dated 20 September 1162.
However, the dispute between Alexander III,
IV and his successors Antipope Paschal III and Antipope Calixtus III (who had the German imperial support) continued until Frederick Barbarossa's defeat at the Legnano in 1176, after which Barbarossa finally (in the Peace of Venice of 1177) recognized Alexander III as pope. On 12 March 1178, Alexander III returned to Rome, which he had been compelled to leave twice: the first time between 1162 and 23 November 1165, when he was sent into exile in Campania by Oddone Frangipane following his brief arrest and detainment, and again in 1167. The first period he spent in France, the latter chiefly in Gaeta, Benevento, Anagni, and Venice.
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