Synonyms for aphasias or Related words with aphasias
Examples of "aphasias"
listed below are examples of acute
which can result from brain injury or stroke.
The acquired language disorders that are associated to brain activity are called
. Depending on the location of the damage, the
can present several differences.
Conduction and transcortical
are caused by damage to the white matter tracts. These
spare the cortex of the language centers, but instead create a disconnection between them.
Aphasia is loss of the ability to produce or comprehend language. There are acute
which result from stroke or brain injury, and primary progressive
caused by progressive illnesses such as dementia.
are often the result of tissue damage following a stroke.
The following table summarizes some major characteristics of different acute
are also seen in many elder adults.
are responsible for many sentence comprehension deficits. Many language-impaired patients make several complaints about short-term memory deficits, with several family members confirming that patients have trouble recalling previously known names and events. The opinion is supported by many studies showing that many aphasics also have trouble with visual-memory required tasks.
include transcortical motor aphasia, transcortical sensory aphasia, and mixed transcortical aphasia. Patients with transcortical motor aphasia typically have intact comprehension and awareness of their errors, but poor word finding and speech production. Patients with transcortical sensory and mixed transcortical aphasia have poor comprehension and unawareness of their errors. Despite poor comprehension and more severe deficits in some transcortical
, small studies have indicated that full recovery is possible for all types of transcortical aphasia. Due to the limited research on outcomes for the specific subtypes of these
, it is more important to focus on the other factors and severity of deficits in order to predict a reasonable outcome.
A fascinating corollary of this has come from research on
in deaf users of sign language, who show deficits in signing and comprehension analogous to Expressive and Receptive
in hearing populations. These studies demonstrate that the grammatical functions of Broca's area and the semantic functions of Wernicke's area are indeed deep, abstract properties of the language system independent of its modality of expression.
Recent classification schemes adopting this approach, such as the "Boston-Neoclassical Model", also group these classical aphasia subtypes into two larger classes: the nonfluent
(which encompasses Broca's aphasia and transcortical motor aphasia) and the fluent
(which encompasses Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia and transcortical sensory aphasia). These schemes also identify several further aphasia subtypes, including: anomic aphasia, which is characterized by a selective difficulty finding the names for things; and global aphasia, where both expression and comprehension of speech are severely compromised.
There are no known environmental risk factors for the progressive
. However, one observational, retrospective study suggested that vasectomy could be a risk factor for PPA in men. These results have yet to be replicated or demonstrated by prospective studies.
Research into the perisylvan region of the right hemisphere has shown that there are similarly mapped analogues to the speech center in the left hemisphere. This is especially evident in those areas resembling Broca's area and Wernicke's area. The similarity of these regions has led scientists to view aprosodias in a similar manner to how some
are viewed. Because the presence of an aphasia is often more pronounced in an individual than an aprosodia might be,
have traditionally been more heavily studied. Because
are rooted in deficiencies in language modalities rather than affective aspects of language, it has been easier to characterize the underlying impairment caused by brain damage (e.g. inability to choose the right word or inability to speak due to motor control). Combining aphasic research with right-left analogue mapping has allowed for researchers to produce hypotheses on the underlying process behind various aprosodias.
Wernicke predicted the existence of conduction aphasia in his landmark 1874 monograph, "Der Aphasische Symptomenkompleks: Eine Psychologische Studie auf Anatomischer Basis". He was the first to distinguish the various
in an anatomical framework, and proposed that a disconnection between the two speech systems (motor and sensory) would lead to a unique condition, distinct from both expressive and receptive
, which he termed "Leitungsaphasie". He did not explicitly predict the repetition deficit, but did note that, unlike those with Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasics would be able to comprehend speech properly, and intriguingly, would be able to hear and understand their own speech errors, leading to frustration and self-correction.
Conduction aphasia is a relatively mild language impairment, and most patients return to day-to-day life. Symptoms of conduction aphasia, as with other
, can be transient, lasting only several hours or a few days. As
and other language disorders are frequently due to stroke, their symptoms can change and evolve over time, or simply disappear. This is due to healing in the brain after inflammation or hemorrhage, which leads to decreased local impairment. Furthermore, plastic changes in the brain may lead to the recruitment of new pathways to restore lost function. However, chronic conduction aphasia is possible, without transformation to other
. These patients show prolonged, profound deficits in repetition, frequent phonemic paraphasias, and "conduite d'approche" during spontaneous speech.
Aphasia is best thought of as a collection of different disorders, rather than a single problem. Each individual with aphasia will present with their own particular combination of language strengths and weaknesses. Consequently, it is a major challenge just to document the various difficulties that can occur in different people, let alone decide how they might best be treated. Most classifications of the
tend to divide the various symptoms into broad classes. A common approach is to distinguish between the fluent
(where speech remains fluent, but content may be lacking, and the person may have difficulties understanding others), and the nonfluent
(where speech is very halting and effortful, and may consist of just one or two words at a time).
Aphasiology is the study of language impairment usually resulting from brain damage, due to neurovascular accident—hemorrhage, stroke—or associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including different types of dementia. It is also the name of a scientific journal covering the area. These specific language deficits, termed
, may be defined as impairments of language production or comprehension that cannot be attributed to trivial causes such as deafness or oral paralysis. A number of
have been described, but two are best known: expressive aphasia (Broca's aphasia) and receptive aphasia (Wernicke's or sensory aphasia).
Anomic aphasia (also known as dysnomia, nominal aphasia, and amnesic aphasia) is a mild, fluent type of aphasia where an individual has word retrieval failures and cannot express the words they want to say (particularly nouns and verbs). Anomia is a deficit of expressive language. The most pervasive deficit in the
is anomia. Some level of anomia is seen in all of the
. Individuals with aphasia who display anomia can often describe an object in detail and maybe even use hand gestures to demonstrate how the object is used but cannot find the appropriate word to name the object.
Wernicke was influenced by Theodor Meynert, his mentor, who postulated that
were due to perisylvian lesions. Meynert also distinguished between the posterior and anterior language systems, leading Wernicke to localize the two regions. Wernicke's research into the fiber pathways connecting the posterior and anterior regions lead him to theorize that damage to the fibers under the insula would lead to conduction aphasia. Ludwig Lichtheim expanded on Wernicke's work, although he labeled the disorder "commissural aphasia", to distinguish between
tied to processing centers.
Paraphasia is associated with fluent
, characterized by “fluent spontaneous speech, long grammatically shaped sentences and preserved prosody abilities.” Examples of these fluent
include receptive or Wernicke’s aphasia, anomic aphasia, conduction aphasia, and transcortical sensory aphasia, among others. All of these lead to a difference in processing efficiency, which is often caused by damage to a cortical region in the brain (in receptive aphasia, for example, the lesion is in or near Wernicke’s area); lesion location is the most important determining factor for all aphasic disorders, including paraphasia - the location of the lesion can be used to hypothesize the type of aphasic symptoms the patient will display. This lesion can be caused by a variety of different methods: malfunctioning blood vessels (caused, for example, by a stroke) in the brain are the cause of 80% of
in adults, as compared to head injuries, dementia and degenerative diseases, poisoning, metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, and demyelinating diseases. Lesions involving the posterior superior temporal lobe are often associated with fluent
Meanwhile, Carl Wernicke described patients with receptive aphasia, who had damage to the left posterior superior temporal lobe, which he named "the area of word images". These patients could speak fluently, but their speech lacked meaning. They had a severe deficit in auditory comprehension. The two disorders (expressive and receptive
) thus seemed complementary, and corresponded to two distinct anatomical locations.
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