Synonyms for aphelinidae or Related words with aphelinidae
Examples of "aphelinidae"
Botryoideclava is a small genus of chalcid wasps belonging to the family
Predators of "Lepidosaphes beckii" include chalcid wasps from families
, Encyrtidae and Signiphoridae:
Bardylis is a small genus of chalcid wasps belonging to the family
Coccophagus is a large genus of chalcid wasps belonging to the family
Botryoideclava bharatiya is a chalcid wasp belonging to the family
. It parasitzes "Melanaspis glomerata", a pest of sugarcane.
Coccophagus acanthosceles is a species of chalcid wasp belonging to the family
. It is found in southern Asia.
Ablerus is a genus of chalcid wasps belonging to the family
. Species include "Ablerus aegypticus" and "Ablerus macrochaeta".
Aphytis mytilaspidis is a species of chalcid wasp in the
family. The adults feed on scale insects and the larvae are ectoparasites of scales.
Allomymar is a little-known genus of chalcid wasps belonging to the family
. It is possible that "Allomymar" belongs in the genus "Encarsia".
Parasitoids hosted by the Cecidomyiidae, thereby limiting the gall midge population include the Braconidae (Opiinae, Euphorinae) and chalcidoid wasps in the families Eurytomidae, Eulophidae, Torymidae, Pteromalidae, Eupelmidae, Trichogrammatidae, and
. All contain species which are actual or potential biolological agents.
Predators include midges, lacewings, syrphid fly larvae, anthocorid bugs and ladybirds (ladybeetles). Several members of the Aphidiinae and
wasp families are parasitoids of aphids. One which shows promise as a biocontrol agent is "Aphelinus asychis".
Because of their small sizes, fairyflies may sometimes be mistaken for members of the families
and Trichogrammatidae, but members of these other families can readily be distinguished by having much shorter antennae.
Encarsia is a large genus of minute parasitic wasps of the family
. The genus is very diverse with currently about 400 described species and worldwide distribution. The number of existing species is expected to be several times higher because many species are still undescribed. "Encarsia" is a very complex genus, with specimens showing both inter- and intra-specific variations, making morphological classification difficult.
Thelytoky can occur by different mechanisms, each of which has a different impact on the level of homozygosity. It can be induced in Hymenoptera by the bacteria "Wolbachia" and "Cardinium", and has also been described in several groups of Hymenoptera, including Cynipidae, Tenthredinidae,
, Ichneumonidae, Apidae and Formicidae.
Aphytis is a genus of chalcid wasp in the
family. Members of this genus are very small averaging two to three millimetres in length and are mostly black or yellow with transparent wings. The larvae are parasitic on other insects. There are about 130 species.
The UCR collection of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) is one of the world's largest of this group, and the slide collection of Chalcidoidea has no comparison in the world (more than 100,000 slides, primarily Trichogrammatidae,
, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Encyrtidae). Additional specialty taxa represented as slides or pinned specimens are Apoidea, Asiloidea (esp. Bombyliidae, Therevidae, Asilidae), Meloidae, Thysanoptera, Staphylinidae, Melyridae, Coccinellidae, Sciomyzidae, Tephritidae, Miridae, Aphididae, Coccoidea, and various selected genera (e.g., the scarab genera "Pleocoma" and "Chrysina"). The holdings include over 1,100 primary types and many thousands of paratypes of the preceding taxa (the majority attributable to P.H. Timberlake).
are a moderate-sized family of tiny parasitic wasps, with about 1160 described species in some 35 genera. These minute insects are challenging to study, as they deteriorate rapidly after death unless extreme care is taken (e.g., preservation in ethanol), making identification of most museum specimens difficult. The larvae of the majority are primary parasitoids on Hemiptera, though other hosts are attacked, and details of the life history can be variable (e.g., some attack eggs, some attack pupae, and others are hyperparasites). They are found throughout the world in virtually all habitats, and are extremely important as biological control agents.
Mymaridae include the genera listed below. "Allomymar" and "Metanthemus" has been transferred to the family
. The fossil genus "Protooctonus" has been transferred to the family Mymarommatidae, and is now considered to be a synonym of "Archaeromma". "Nesopolynema", "Oncomymar", and "Scolopsopteron" were synonymized to the genus "Cremnomymar" in 2013, and their species are now classified under the latter. "Shillingsworthia" is also excluded, as it was a tongue-in-cheek hypothetical concept of a species from the planet Jupiter, "described" by Alexandre Arsène Girault in 1920 to disparage his colleague Johann Francis Illingworth.
UCR's academic colleges administer significant museum collections in the arts and sciences. The Citrus Variety Collection constitutes 1,800 trees representing two of each of the 640 types of Citrus and 28 other related genera in the Rutaceae family, the largest such collection in the world. The Herbarium houses more than 110,000 dried plant specimens from across the Western hemisphere. UCR is also home to of botanical gardens containing more than 3,500 plant species from around the world. The Gardens are located in the eastern foothills of the Box Springs Mountain on the University of California, Riverside campus. Over four miles (6 km) of trails wind through many microclimates and hilly terrain. The Entomology Research Museum contains more than three million insect specimens, with particular strengths in Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea,
, Thysanoptera and Meloidae. The UCR/California Museum of Photography and Sweeney Art Gallery house UCR's primary art collections. The UCR/CMP includes the world's largest holding of vintage stereographs, one of the three great public collections of photographic apparatus in the US, and the University Print Collection of contemporary and historical images by over 1000 photographers. Located adjacent to the UCR/CMP, the Sweeney Art Gallery holds approximately 650 unique works, with especially strong collections from the modern to contemporary periods, including pieces by Alexander Calder, Roy Lichtenstein, Millard Sheets and Kara Walker.
Another natural enemy of the whitefly are parasitoids, which kill their host once their development has been completed. Whitefly parasitoids are affiliated with three hymenopterous families. These families are Platygasteridae,
, and the Eulophidae. The best studied of these whitefly parasitoids are "Encarsia formosa" and "Eretmocerus eremicus", both of which are commercially available. The "Encarsia formosa" "Beltsville Strain", however, has been unable to control "Bemisia tabaci" biotype B in commercial greenhouses; it is only able to control the species in small experimental greenhouses. In an experiment done by the Hoddle laboratory, the release of three or more "E. formosa" on "B. tabaci" per week failed to control the pure population of the species on poinsettia plants because wasps that are reared in the "B. tabaci" are less fecund, have a slower development, and fail to allow immature parasitoids to survive and develop. The species "Encarsia formosa" works much better at controlling the whitefly species "Trialeurodes vaporariorum" than it does "Bemisia tabaci". On the other hand, "Eretmocerus sp" is much better at controlling silverleaf whitefly than is the "Encarsia formosa" "Beltsville Strain." In an experiment done again by the Hoddle laboratory, the release of three female wasps of an "Eretmocerus" species were able to effectively eliminate patches of the fly nymphs right after their discovery. The wasps are faster at searching for patches of nymphs of their host species and are consistent at controlling the population. "Eretmocerus" are bi-parental ecto-endoparasites, meaning that parents lay their eggs on the outside of the fly. As the wasp larvae grow they penetrate the fly and continue their growth and development inside the host. Plant growers today have been successfully able to control the population of "Bemisia tabaci" by using a variable release strategy. In the variable release strategy employed, six female parasitoids were released per week for the first half of the growing season, while only one female was released per week for the remaining of the season. The effectiveness of the parasitoid wasps was improved by releasing varying amounts of them per week so that they are continuously available. the number released deceases as the number of hosts decreases due to the wasps effectiveness. If natural enemies are not able to control the pest population at low levels due to a significant increase in pest, an insecticide compatible with the biological control agent could be used to assist in reducing the pest population to low levels again.
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