Synonyms for asnova or Related words with asnova
Examples of "asnova"
An illustration of the concept appeared on the front cover of Adolf Behne's book "Der Moderne Zweckbau", and articles on it written by Lissitzky appeared in the Moscow-based architectural review "
News" (journal of
, the Association of New Architects) and in the German art journal "Das Kunstblatt".
members were prolific in paper projects and competitions but built rarely. Members Melnikov and Ladovsky were awarded first and second place respectively in the competition for the Soviet pavilion at the 1925 Paris exhibition. A few realized projects survive in the former USSR. Most notable are Ladovsky's apartment block on Tverskaya in Moscow (1929) and a series of three 'social condenser' kitchens and communal facilities built in Leningrad between 1928-31 by an
team made up of A. K. Barutchev, I. A. Gil'ter, I.A. Meerzon and Ya. O. Rubanchik.
split in 1928 when Ladovsky set up his own group, the ARU (Association of Architect-Urbanists), although
joint entries were made for the Palace of Soviets competition. The group was dissolved in 1932 along with all other artistic associations.
Creative unions played a large role in the architectural life of 1920s Russia. One of these was the Association of New Architects ("
"), formed in 1923, which promoted the idea of synthesising architecture and other creative arts to give buildings an almost sculptural feeling. These buildings were to serve as visual points for the orientation of a human in space. Members of "
" also designed Moscow's first skyscrapers, none of which were realised at the time (1923–1926).
Vladimir Fyodorovich Krinsky (Владимир Фёдорович Кринский; 19 December 1890 – 2 April 1971) was a Russian artist and architect active with the
architectural organisation and linked with the Cologne Progressives.
(; abbreviation for "Ассоциация новых архитекторов", "Association of New Architects") was an Avant-Garde architectural association in the Soviet Union, which was active in the 1920s and early 1930s, commonly called 'the Rationalists'.
The group received a boost when El Lissitzky became a proponent in the mid-1920s, designing the one issue of the journal "
News" in 1926. In addition Konstantin Melnikov, then as now the most famous Soviet Modernist architect, was a member of the group at one point, preferring its concentration on affect and intuition to the OSA's scientific precision: although he and Ilya Golosov would form a 'centre' group between
and OSA. Berthold Lubetkin, better known for his work in London, was also an early associate of the group. The 1928 'flying city' of Georgy Krutikov was an
project that was both famous and notorious for its Utopianism, inflected with motifs from Science Fiction.
Immediately after the Russian Civil War, the USSR was too impoverished to commission any major new building projects. Nonetheless, the Soviet avant-garde school Vkhutemas started an architectural wing in 1921, which was led by the architect Nikolai Ladovsky, which was called
(association of new architects). The teaching methods were both functional and fantastic, reflecting an interest in gestalt psychology, leading to daring experiments with form such as Simbirchev's glass-clad suspended restaurant. Among the architects affiliated to the
(Association of New Architects) were El Lissitzky, Konstantin Melnikov, Vladimir Krinsky and the young Berthold Lubetkin.
Architects such as Henri Labrouste and Auguste Perret incorporated the virtues of structural rationalism throughout the 19th century in their buildings. By the early 20th century, architects such as Hendrik Petrus Berlage were exploring the idea that structure itself could create space without the need for decoration. This gave rise to modernism, which further explored this concept. More specifically, the Soviet Modernist group
were known as 'the Rationalists'.
In 1925 Ladovsky teamed with El Lissitzky to design new housing for Ivanovo; their plans were based on arranging residential blocks at 120° in zigzag or star patterns. This approach allowed cost-saving on common-use staircases, ventilation and plumbing lines. One 12-segment building of this type, combining both star and zigzag junctions, was completed in Khamovniki District of Moscow. The next year, Ladovsky and Lissitzky released the first (and only) volume of "Izvestia
" (), compiled mostly from Ladovsky's works.
, the union of rationalist architects, was founded in 1923; members typically belonged to VKhuTEMAS faculty. Their first public success came with winning the 1924 contest for the International Red Stadium in Sparrow Hills, Moscow (lead designer: Vladimir Krinsky). In the following two years Ladovsky personally led the design team, producing detailed construction plans. However, in the autumn of 1927 the project was canceled citing unsuitable geological foundation of the chosen site.
In early 1930s, Rubanchik was part of the Leningrad-based
(Russian: АСНОВА; abbreviation for Ассоциация новых архитекторов, "Association of New Architects"), an Avant-Garde architectural association in the Soviet Union, which was active in the 1920s and early 1930s, commonly called 'the Rationalists'. Designed several projects of factory-kitchen buildings, such as the factory-kitchen of the Vyborg District of Leningrad. In 1933-1941 was director of Workshop 1 of the Leningrad-based (GIPROGOR).
Despite the ambitiousness of many Constructivist proposals for reconstructed cities, there were fairly few examples of coherent Constructivist town planning. However the Narvskaya Zastava district of Leningrad became a focus for Constructivism. Beginning in 1925 communal housing was designed for the area by architects like A. Gegello and OSA's Alexander Nikolsky, as well as public buildings like the Kirov Town Hall by Noi Trotsky (1932–4), an experimental school by G.A Simonov and a series of Communal laundries and kitchens, designed for the area by local
At the same time as this foray into the everyday, outlandish projects were designed such as Ivan Leonidov's Lenin Institute, a high tech work that bears comparison with Buckminster Fuller. This consisted of a skyscraper-sized library, a planetarium and dome, all linked together by a monorail; or Georgy Krutikov's self-explanatory Flying City, an
project that was intended as a serious proposal for airborne housing. Melnikov House and his Bakhmetevsky Bus Garage are fine examples of the tensions between individualism and utilitarianism in Constructivism.
Despite the bitter war between VOPRA and modernist groups (
, the OSA Group) there was an attempt to unify the architects within one voluntary union (MOVANO). With support from older generation (Alexey Shchusev), MOVANO existed in 1930-1932, however, VOPRA tried to destroy it from within and launched their own magazine, "RA" (Revolutionary Architecture), co-edited by Mordvinov; soon, he co-edited another magazine, "SA" (Soviet Architecture, 1931-1934). Formation of Union of Soviet Architects in 1932 allowed Mordvinov to move from small-time criticism to an executive position; he acquired bureaucratic muscle and set up his own workshop, present in all architectural contests of the 1930s.
group, OSA grew out of the avant-garde wing of the VKhUTEMAS school in Moscow. The group's founders were Moisei Ginzburg, well known for his book "Style and Epoch" (a Soviet response to Le Corbusier's "Vers une Architecture") and the painter, designer and architect Alexander Vesnin. Unlike the earlier association the OSA group claimed for itself the name Constructivist, in that it was, in its utilitarianism and concentration on function rather than form, an architectural equivalent to the experiments of 'artistic' Constructivism. OSA was in many ways the architectural wing of the socialist Modernists of LEF, and likewise set up its own journal in 1926.
His first major work in Berlin was under prominent architect Max Taut. Stam was assigned to design a variety of buildings across Germany, notably assisting Taut in the design of the German Trade Union Federation Building, Düsseldorf. During this time, he also worked with Russian avant-garde architect El Lissitzky. The pair's most striking design was the "Wolkenbügel", or cloud iron, a t-shaped skyscraper supported on 3 metal framed columns. Although never built, the building was a vivid contrast to America's vertical building style, as the building only rose up a relatively modest height then expanded horizontally over an intersection so make better use of space. Its three posts were on three different street corners, canvassing the intersection. An illustration of it appeared on the front cover of Adolf Behne's book, "Der Moderne Zweckbau", and articles on it written by Lissitzky appeared in an issue of the Moscow-based architectural review,
News (journal of
, the Association of New Architects), and in the German art journal "Das Kunstblatt".
Meanwhile, the Russian educational system collapsed; the new art college, VKhUTEMAS, was formed in 1920. Its architectural faculty was split between three factions: An Academic Workshop (Ivan Zholtovsky), left-wing United Workshops (Nikolai Ladovsky), and a joint workshop of Melnikov and Ilya Golosov, known as New Academy and Workshop No.2. Melnikov and Golosov resisted both the academic and left-wing camps; in 1924, when the management merged New Academy with Academic Workshop, Melnikov quit VKhUTEMAS. In 1923-1924, Melnikov temporarily associated himself with the
and LEF artistic groups, however, he was not involved in public disputes and made no public statements. In particular, he clearly distanced himself from the Constructivist group, led by Moisei Ginzburg and Alexander Vesnin.
Since 1928 Milyutin also chaired the Commission on New town Planning and collaborated with theoreticians Moisei Ginzburg and Mikhail Okhitovich on the planned housing and development policies. Since 1930 he chaired the Housing Commission within the Communist Academy and edited "Sovetskaya Arkhitektura" magazine, the only professional magazine left after dissolution of "SA magazine". Unlike the latter, which was the voice of OSA Group, Milytin's magazine provided space for rival groups (VOPRA,
) at the same time being in opposition to outright revivalism and eclecticism. In 1933 "Sovremennaya Arkhitektura" briefly coexisted with the official "Arkhitektura SSSR" edited by Karo Alabyan; it was closed in 1934 after 19 issues, clearing the road to the monopoly of stalinist architecture.
The founder of the OSA Group (Organisation of Contemporary Architects), which had links with Vladimir Mayakovsky and Osip Brik's LEF Group, he published the book "Style and Epoch" in 1924, an influential work of architectural theory with similarities to Le Corbusier's Vers une architecture. It was effectively the manifesto of Constructivist Architecture, a style which combined an interest in advanced technology and engineering with socialist ideals. The OSA experimented with forms of Communal apartments to provide for the new Communist way of life. Its magazine SA (Sovremennaya Arkhitektura, or Contemporary Architecture) featured discussions of city planning and communal living, as well as the futuristic projects of Ivan Leonidov. The group was dissolved in the early 1930s into an 'All-Union Association of Architects', along with the competing Modernist group
, led by Nikolai Ladovsky, and the proto-Stalinist VOPRA.
Ladovsky realized that
represented VKhuTEMAS faculty rather than practical architects, and in 1928 set up ARU (, composed of VKhuTEMAS students (graduates of 1928-1930). As the name implied, the group focused on urban planning for the sustainable development of explosively growing cities. This group and Ladovsky personally generated a series of urban growth programs, including the Parabola. This plan tried to break away from the traditional, singe-center concentric model of development. Instead, Ladovsky proposed linear extension of the city center along a single radius; concentric housing and industrial zones were to unfold along this radius in a horseshoe pattern. This, according to Ladovsky, reduced the need for high-rise construction in the center and traffic congestion. "Parabola", initially published in 1930, was further developed in post-war years by Konstantinos Doxidias but rejected at home.
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