Synonyms for athapascan or Related words with athapascan
Examples of "athapascan"
(Hupa). In "Handbook of American Indian Languages, Part 1", Franz Boas. ed. BAE Bulletin 40, Part 1, 85-158, 1911)
One may encounter this use as a tone sign in some IPA-derived orthographies of minority languages, such as in the North American Native Tanacross (
). In line with the IPA usage it denotes the extra-high tone.
Prior to white settlement of Central California, much of the Eel River watershed was inhabited by Pomo Indians and
peoples. The "extreme headwaters" of the South Fork of the Eel River, as well as the East Fork of the South Fork of the Eel River, were inhabited by the Kai Pomo, whose territory stretched westward to the Eel River mainstem and west and north to the boundary with the
. The lower section of the South Fork Eel was also said to be a boundary between tribes, although this claim is only "probable".
In appearance, the Pomo resemble the other Indians of northern-central California. The Pomo are short (although they are taller and more powerful than their neighbors Yuki and
of the north), and typically fat (with the females being fatter). The people also have large faces, and the women tattoo their chin.
The four spellings—“Athabaskan”, “Athabascan”, “Athapaskan”, and “
”—are in approximately equal use. Particular communities may prefer one spelling over another (Krauss 1987). For example, the Tanana Chiefs Conference and Alaska Native Language Center prefer the spelling “Athabascan”. "Ethnologue" uses “Athapaskan” in naming the language family and individual languages.
Another theory of Tlingit migration is that of the Beringia Land Bridge. Coastal people in general are extremely aggressive; whereas interior
people are passive. Tlingit culture, being the fiercest among the coastal nations due to their northernmost occupation, began to dominate the interior culture as they traveled inland to secure trading alliances. Tlingit traders were the "middlemen" bringing Russian goods inland over the Chilkoot Trail to the Yukon, and on into Northern British Columbia.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene,
, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean). Kari and Potter 2010:10 place the total territory of the 53 Athabaskan languages at 1,563,000 mi or 4,022,000 km. Chipewyan is spoken over the largest area of any North American native language.
The Apache evolved from the
who migrated onto the North American continent through the current state of Alaska and northwestern Canada. There are two theories about how the Apache ancestors migrated into the Plains and southwestern United States. They may have traveled through the mountains, staying in a climate that they were accustomed to, or they may have migrated along the plains. Their descendents, the Navajo and Apache, speak Athabaskan languages.
As the Tlingit people began marrying interior people, their culture became the established "norm." Soon the Tlingit clan and political structure, as well as customs and beliefs dominated all other interior culture. To this day, Tlingit regalia, language, clan structure, political structure, and ceremonies including beliefs are evident in all interior culture. The
way of life is now embedded with the Tlingit people's lifestyle.
Froelich's work spanned across four continents, but it is his early work in Arctic Alaska which is regarded as his most significant. In September 1936 he arrived in Fairbanks, Alaska after voyaging from Portugal to work with German naturalist Otto Geist. Geist had collected specimens from all across the island and Froelich began his study by sorting and labeling the specimens. Come spring he began "a regular pattern of research: early summer hunting for
sites in the interior, late summer working on the tundra with Eskimos, and the rest of the time teaching and writing up his collections.
The Chetco language is a member of the
languages, which also includes most native languages in Alaska, the Apache and Navajo languages in the southwest United States, and the languages spoken by the Rogue River and Tolowa tribes in Oregon. The name Chetco comes from the word "Cheti" in their own language, meaning "close to the mouth of the stream". The nine villages of the tribe on the Chetco River were named "Chettanne", "Chettannene" (twin villages at the mouth of the river), "Khuniliikhwut", "Nakwutthume", "Nukhwuchutun", "Setthatun", "Siskhaslitun", "Tachukhaslitun", and "Thlcharghilitun".
Before contact with Europeans, the indigenous peoples of North America were divided into many different polities, from small bands of a few families to large empires. They lived in several "culture areas", which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones and give a good indication of the main lifeway or occupation of the people who lived there (e.g. the hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica). Native groups can also be classified by their language family (e.g.
or Uto-Aztecan). It is important to note that people with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies.
The Northwest Coast and Arctic Gallery provides insight into the people living along the Pacific Coast of Washington, Alaska and British Columbia and in the northern reaches of Canada. Prints, baskets, masks and other wooden carvings demonstrate the way Northwest Coast art incorporates family history in its imagery. A full size dance screen, painted by a contemporary Tlingit artist for the Museum, a Button Robe, and a woven goat hair and cedar bark Chilkat blanket are also on view. The wide variety of materials used by the Inuit and
peoples of the Arctic is shown by the everyday items on exhibit, including several pairs of snow goggles made from caribou hoof, bone and wood. A full-size early 20th century walrus intestine parka from western Alaska and contemporary dolls from Kotzebue and St. Lawrence Island illustrate different types of traditional dress.
Before contact with Europeans, the natives of North America were divided into many different polities, from small bands of a few families to large empires. They lived in several "culture areas", which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones and give a good indication of the main lifeway or occupation of the people who lived there (e.g., the bison hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica). Native groups can also be classified by their language family (e.g.,
or Uto-Aztecan). Peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies. Anthropologists think that the Inuit people of the high Arctic came to North America much later than other native groups, as evidenced by the disappearance of Dorset culture artifacts from the archaeological record, and their replacement by the Thule people.
The Chetco (Chetco: chit-dee-ni, chit-dee-ne ) are a tribe of Native Americans who originally lived along the lower Chetco River in Curry County in the U.S. state of Oregon. The name Chetco comes from the word meaning "close to the mouth of the stream" in their own language, which is part of the
languages. Although they were once one of the largest tribes on the Pacific coast of Oregon, "the last known full-blooded Chetco" died in 1940, and as of 2009 only 1500 or so descendants of the tribe remain. Some Chetco people are enrolled in federally recognized tribes, the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians in Oregon, and Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, located in Humboldt County, California.
The Mackenzie River in Canada's Northwest Territories is a historic waterway, used for centuries by the original Dene as a travel and hunting corridor. It is part of a larger watershed that includes the Slave, Athabasca, and Peace rivers extending from northern Alberta. In the 1780s, Peter Pond, trader with the North West Company discovered this watershed and began viable trade with the
-speaking Dene of these rivers. The Mackenzie River itself, the great waterway extending to the Arctic Ocean, was first put on European maps by Alexander Mackenzie in 1789, the Scottish trader who explored the river. The watershed thus became a vital part of the fur trade, and before the advent of the airplane or road networks, the river was the only communication link between northern trading posts and the south. Water travel increased in the late 19th century as traders, dominated primarily by the Hudson's Bay Company, looked to increase water services in the Mackenzie River District.
Athabaska Herald of Arms ("Héraut Athabaska" in French) is the title of one of the officers of arms at the Canadian Heraldic Authority in Ottawa. Like the other heralds at the Authority, the name is derived from that of a Canadian river. The design of the badge of office of Athabaska Herald of Arms is based on the floral emblem of the province of Alberta, the wild rose. It is placed over two traditional
copper knives, honouring this native linguistic group and the great river and region of Northwestern Canada, which share various spellings of this name. The office of Athabaska Herald of Arms was created in 1988 at the same time as the Canadian Heraldic Authority, although it is currently vacant.
The 1913 "Handbook of Indians of Canada" (reprinting 1907 material from the Bureau of American Ethnology), claims that North American natives practicing cannibalism included "... the Montagnais, and some of the tribes of Maine; the Algonkin, Armouchiquois, Iroquois, and Micmac; farther west the Assiniboine, Cree, Foxes, Chippewa, Miami, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Illinois, Sioux, and Winnebago; in the South the people who built the mounds in Florida, and the Tonkawa, Attacapa, Karankawa, Caddo, and Comanche (?); in the Northwest and West, portions of the continent, the Thlingchadinneh and other
tribes, the Tlingit, Heiltsuk, Kwakiutl, Tsimshian, Nootka, Siksika, some of the Californian tribes, and the Ute. There is also a tradition of the practice among the Hopi, and mentions of the custom among other tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. The Mohawk, and the Attacapa, Tonkawa, and other Texas tribes were known to their neighbours as 'man-eaters.'" The forms of cannibalism described included both resorting to human flesh during famines and ritual cannibalism, the latter usually consisting of eating a small portion of an enemy warrior.
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