Synonyms for atomism or Related words with atomism
Examples of "atomism"
Riepe states that the details of the Ajivikas theory of
provided the foundations of later modified
theories found in Jain, Buddhist and Hindu traditions.
in the Middle Ages was still mostly philosophical and/or religious in intent, though it was also scientific. Because the "infallible Vedas", the oldest Hindu texts, do not mention atoms (though they do mention elements),
was not orthodox in many schools of Hindu philosophy, although accommodationist interpretations or assumptions of lost text justified the use of
for non-orthodox schools of Hindu thought. The Buddhist and Jaina schools, however, were more willing to accept the ideas of
At the time Russell delivered his lectures on logical
, he had lost contact with Wittgenstein. After World War I, Russell met with Wittgenstein again and helped him publish the Tractatus Logico Philosophicus, Wittgenstein's own version of Logical
Although Wittgenstein did not use the term himself, his metaphysical view throughout the "Tractatus" is commonly referred to as logical
. While his logical
resembles that of Bertrand Russell, the two views are not strictly the same.
Andrew Pyle (born 17 March 1955) is a British philosopher on the history of philosophical
is a school of atomistic Buddhist philosophy that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during two major periods . During the first phase, which began to develop prior to the 4th century BCE, Buddhist
had a very qualitative, Aristotelian-style atomic theory. This form of
identifies four kinds of atoms, corresponding to the standard elements. Each of these elements has a specific property, such as solidity or motion, and performs a specific function in mixtures, such as providing support or causing growth. Like the Hindus and Jains, the Buddhists were able to integrate a theory of
with their logical presuppositions.
References to the concept of
and its atoms are found in ancient India and ancient Greece. In the West,
emerged in the 5th century BCE with Leucippus and Democritus. In India the Jain, Ajivika and Carvaka schools of
dates back to the 6th century BCE. The Nyaya and Vaisheshika schools later developed theories on how atoms combined into more complex objects. Whether Indian culture influenced Greek or vice versa or whether both evolved independently is a matter of dispute.
According to some twentieth-century philosophers, unit-point
was the philosophy of the Pythagoreans, a conscious repudiation of Parmenides and the Eleatics. It stated that atoms were infinitesimally small ("point") yet possessed corporeality. It was a predecessor of Democritean
. Most recent students of presocratic philosophy, such as , Walter Burkert, Gregory Vlastos, Jonathan Barnes, and Daniel W. Graham have rejected that any form of
can be applied to the early Pythagoreans (before Ecphantus of Syracuse).
In Ancient Indian philosophy, materialism developed around 600 BC with the works of Ajita Kesakambali, Payasi, Kanada, and the proponents of the Cārvāka school of philosophy. Kanada became one of the early proponents of
. The Nyaya–Vaisesika school ( 600 BC – 100 BC) developed one of the earliest forms of
, though their proofs of God and their positing that consciousness was not material precludes labelling them as materialists. Buddhist
and the Jaina school continued the atomic tradition.
Johann Chrysostom Magnenus (French "Jean Chrysostôme Magnen", c. 1590 – c. 1679) was a physician and advocate of
The most successful form of Islamic
was in the Asharite school of Islamic theology, most notably in the work of the theologian al-Ghazali (1058–1111). In Asharite
, atoms are the only perpetual, material things in existence, and all else in the world is "accidental" meaning something that lasts for only an instant. Nothing accidental can be the cause of anything else, except perception, as it exists for a moment. Contingent events are not subject to natural physical causes, but are the direct result of God's constant intervention, without which nothing could happen. Thus nature is completely dependent on God, which meshes with other Asharite Islamic ideas on causation, or the lack thereof (Gardet 2001). Al-Ghazali also used the theory to support his theory of occasionalism. In a sense, the Asharite theory of
has far more in common with Indian
than it does with Greek
At the end of the book a political intention becomes clearer as he invokes Hegel against the free thinking, “self will” and
he understands as a consequence of the Aufklarung (Enlightenment): “Hegel, indeed, has no object but ‘reconciling and neutralising
’ once again to restore to us ‘and in the new light of the new thought’ Immortality and Free-will, Christianity and God.”
Speculation on "minima naturalia" in late Antiquity, in the Islamic world, and by Scholastic and Renaissance thinkers in Europe provided a conceptual bridge between the
of ancient Greece and the mechanistic philosophy of early modern thinkers like Descartes, which in turn provided a background for the rigorously mathematical and experimental
of modern science.
The second phase of Buddhist
, which flourished in the 7th century CE, was very different from the first. Indian Buddhist philosophers, including Dharmakirti and Dignāga, considered atoms to be point-sized, durationless, and made of energy. In discussing Buddhist
, Stcherbatsky writes:
Although Wittgenstein did not use the expression "Logical
", the book espouses most of Russell's logical
except for Russell's Theory of Knowledge (T 5.4 and 5.5541). By 1918 Russell had moved away from this position. Nevertheless, the "Tractatus" differed so fundamentally from the philosophy of Russell that Wittgenstein always believed that Russell misunderstood the work.
is a central part of today's relationship between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Ancient thinkers such as Leucippus and Democritus, and later the Epicureans, by advancing
, laid the foundations for the later atomic theory. Until experimental proof of atoms was later provided in the 20th century, the atomic theory was driven largely by philosophical considerations and scientific intuition.
The Nyaya–Vaisesika school developed one of the earliest forms of
; scholars date the Nyaya and Vaisesika texts from the 6th to 1st centuries BC. Like the Buddhist atomists, the Vaisesika had a pseudo-Aristotelian theory of
. They posited the four elemental atom types, but in Vaisesika physics atoms had 24 different possible qualities, divided between general extensive properties and specific (intensive) properties. Like the Jaina school, the Nyaya–Vaisesika atomists had elaborate theories of how atoms combine. In both Jaina and Vaisesika
, atoms first combine in pairs (dyads), and then group into trios of pairs (triads), which are the smallest visible units of matter.
While Aristotelian philosophy eclipsed the importance of the atomists in late Roman and medieval Europe, their work was still preserved and exposited through commentaries on the works of Aristotle. In the 2nd century, Galen (AD 129–216) presented extensive discussions of the Greek atomists, especially Epicurus, in his Aristotle commentaries. According to historian of
Joshua Gregory, there was no serious work done with
from the time of Galen until Gassendi and Descartes resurrected it in the 17th century; "the gap between these two 'modern naturalists' and the ancient Atomists marked "the exile of the atom" and "it is universally admitted that the Middle Ages had abandoned
, and virtually lost it."
The scholar Dharmakirti (), one of the Buddhist founders of Indian philosophical logic, as well as one of the primary theorists of Buddhist
, taught at Nalanda.
Indian Buddhists, such as Dharmakirti and others, also developed distinctive theories of
, for example, involving momentary (instantaneous) atoms, that flash in and out of existence (Kalapas).
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