Synonyms for atony or Related words with atony
Examples of "atony"
(; also "atonia") is a condition in which a muscle has lost its strength. It is frequently associated with the conditions atonic seizure, atonic colon, uterine
(occurs postoperatively) and choreatic atonia.
The term "
" comes from the Ancient Greek ἀτονία ("atonia"), "slackness, debility".
Causes of postpartum hemorrhage are uterine
, trauma, retained placenta, and coagulopathy, commonly referred to as the "four Ts":
can also refer to the paralyzed or extremely relaxed state of skeletal muscles in rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) in most warm-blooded animals.
Lack of contraction at this stage is termed uterine
. After pregnancy the uterus returns to its nonpregnant size by a process of myometrial involution.
Santonin also was used in a lesser extent in treatment of
of the bladder. This usage largely dropped off after the early 20th century.
is a loss of tone in the uterine musculature. Normally, contraction of the uterine muscles during labor compresses the blood vessels and reduces flow, thereby increasing the likelihood of coagulation and preventing hemorrhage. A lack of uterine muscle contraction, however, can lead to an acute hemorrhage, as the uterine blood vessels are not sufficiently compressed. Clinically, 75-80% of postpartum hemorrhages are due to uterine
There may be hemorrhaging originating from lacerations and/or hematomas of the cervix, vagina, or perineum. There may also be hemorrhaging from the uterus. Uterine
may result from muscular exhaustion after unusually strong and rapid labor.
He died on September 24, 1876 in St. Louis, Missouri. The cause of death was recorded as
of the bowels. His body was interred in Bellefontaine Cemetery, St. Louis, Missouri.
He was the author of influential textbooks on both obstetrics and gynecology. The focus of his research included hot water therapy for uterine
, treatment of puerperal fever, fetal disease, umbilical infections and laparotomy.
Recovery from an intact dilation and evacuation procedure is similar to recovery from a non-intact dilation and extraction. Prophylactic antibiotics (usually doxycycline) are given to prevent infection of the Fallopian tubes (salpingitis) or endometrium (endometritis). Postoperative pain is usually minimal and managed with NSAIDs. In cases of uterine
and corresponding blood loss, methergine or misoprostol can be given to encourage uterine contraction and achieve hemostasis. Patients who have recently undergone an intact D&E are monitored for signs of coagulopathy, uterine perforation, uterine
, retained tissue, or hemorrhage.
Used in postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine
not controlled by other methods. One study has shown that carboprost tromethamine is more effective than oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage in high-risk patients undergoing caesarian delivery. Carboprost is also used for the termination of pregnancy in the 2nd trimester.
Decreased propulsive ability may be broadly classified as caused either by bowel obstruction or intestinal
or paralysis. However, instances with symptoms and signs of a bowel obstruction occur, but with the absence of a mechanical obstruction, mainly in acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, Ogilvie's syndrome.
A temporary paralysis of a portion of the intestines occurs typically after abdominal surgery. Since the intestinal content of this portion is unable to move forward, food or drink should be avoided until peristaltic sound is heard, by auscultation (use of a stethoscope) of the area where this portion lies. Intestinal
or paralysis may be caused by inhibitory neural reflexes, inflammation or other implication of neurohumoral peptides.
REM sleep has been observed in the pilot whale, a species of dolphin. Whales do not seem to have REM sleep, nor do they seem to have any problems because of this. One reason REM sleep might be difficult in marine settings is the fact that REM sleep causes muscular
; that is to say, a functional paralysis of skeletal muscles that can be difficult to combine with the need to breathe regularly.
The morbidity associated with the Wertheim-Meigs operation is substantial. The most important complications are ureteral, ureterovaginal, and vesicovaginal fistulae, appearing during the immediate postoperative convalescence period or later mainly in patients who received subsequent radiotherapy. Other complications are described: intraoperative hemorrhage due to pelvic large vessel lesion, ureter or bladder accidental section, abdominal wall dehiscence, ureteral obstruction causing hydronephrosis and renal exclusion, disorders such as urinary incontinence, pollakiuria, vesical
, often accompanied by urinary tract infection and hematuria.
The first step in management of uterine
is uterine massage. The next step is pharmacological therapies, the first of which is oxytocin, used because it initiates rhythmic contractions of the uterus, compressing the spiral arteries which should reduce bleeding. The next step in the pharmacological management is the use of methylergometrine, which is an ergot derivative, much like that use in the abortive treatment of migraines. Its side effect of hypertension means its use should not be used in those with hypertension or pre-eclampsia. In those with hypertension, the use of prostaglandin F is indicated (but beware of its use in patients with asthma).
Oxybutynin chloride is contraindicated in patients with untreated narrow angle glaucoma, and in patients with untreated narrow anterior chamber angles—since anticholinergic drugs may aggravate these conditions. It is also contraindicated in partial or complete obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, hiatal hernia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, paralytic ileus, intestinal
of the elderly or debilitated patient, megacolon, toxic megacolon complicating ulcerative colitis, severe colitis, and myasthenia gravis. It is contraindicated in patients with obstructive uropathy and in patients with unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage. Oxybutynin chloride is contraindicated in patients who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to the product.
In Egypt and Nigeria, in separate and combined analyses, findings showed that women treated with the NASG fared much better than women who were not treated with the NASG. Results showed significant reductions in blood loss, rate of emergency hysterectomy and incidence of morbidity and mortality. Analyses examining the use of the NASG on cases of uterine
, postpartum hemorrhage, and non-atonic etiologies (ante and postpartum) found similar results. Other analyses found that the NASG additionally resulted in a more rapid recovery from shock, helped women overcome treatment delays and had a similarly strong ameliorative effect on women in severe shock.
When sufficiently large, the nodules push on and narrow the urethra resulting in an increased resistance to flow of urine from the bladder. This is commonly referred to as "obstruction", although the urethral lumen is no less patent, only compressed. Resistance to urine flow requires the bladder to work harder during voiding, possibly leading to progressive hypertrophy, instability, or weakness (
) of the bladder muscle. If BPH causes obstruction of the bladder and remains untreated, complications such as recurrent urinary tract infections, bladder stones, and chronic kidney disease (potentially leading to kidney failure) may ensue.
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