Synonyms for azoospermia or Related words with azoospermia
Examples of "azoospermia"
can be classified into three major types as listed. Many conditions listed may also cause various degrees of oligospermia rather than
In men with posttesticular
a number of approaches are available. For obstructive
IVF-ICSI or surgery can be used and individual factors need to be considered for the choice of treatment. Medication may be helpful for retrograde ejaculation.
is characterized by inadequate stimulation of otherwise normal testicles and genital tract. Typically, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are low (hypogonadotropic) commensurate with inadequate stimulation of the testes to produce sperm. Examples include hypopituitarism (for various causes), hyperprolactinemia, and exogenous FSH suppression by testosterone. Chemotherapy may suppress spermatogenesis. Pretesticular
is seen in about 2% of
After a vasectomy, contraceptive precautions must be continued until
is confirmed. Usually two semen analyses at three and four months are necessary to confirm
. The British Andrological Society has recommended that a single semen analysis confirming
after sixteen weeks is sufficient.
Generally, men with unexplained hypergonadotropic
need to undergo a chromosomal evaluation.
Pre- and post-testicular
are frequently correctible, while testicular
is usually permanent. In the former the cause of the
needs to be considered and it opens up possibilities to manage this situation directly. Thus men with
due to hyperprolactinemia may resume sperm production after treatment of hyperprolactinemia or men whose sperm production is suppressed by exogenous androgens are expected to produce sperm after cessation of androgen intake. In situations where the testes are normal but unstimulated, gonadotropin therapy can be expected to induce sperm production.
is seen in Klinefelter syndrome(XXY) and the XX male syndrome. In addition, 13% of men with
have a defective spermatogenesis that is linked to defects of the Y chromosome. Such defects tend to be de novo micro-deletions and affect usually the long arm of the chromosome. A section of the long arm of the Y chromosome has been termed
Factor (AZF) at Yq11 and subdivided into AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and possibly more subsections. Defects in this area can lead to oligospermia or
, however, a tight genotype-phenotype correlation has not been achieved.
-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the "DAZL" gene.
DBCP causes a dramatic decrease in male fertility, ranging from oligospermia (low sperm count) to
(lack of sperm).
protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the "DAZ3" gene.
1, also known as DAZ1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the "DAZ1" gene.
Some studies have shown that letrozole can be used to promote spermatogenesis in male patients suffering from nonobstructive
protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the "DAZ2" gene.
Genetic factors can cause pretesticular, testicular, and posttesticular
(or oligospermia) and include the following situations: The frequency of chromosomal abnormalities is inversely proportional to the semen count, thus males with
are at risk to have a 10-15% (other sources citing 15-20% incidence) abnormalities on karyotyping versus about <1 % in the fertile male population.
may be caused by congential hypopituitarism, Kallmann syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and other genetic conditions that lead to GnRH or gonadotropin deficiency.
is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm. It is associated with infertility, but many forms are amenable to medical treatment. In humans,
affects about 1% of the male population and may be seen in up to 20% of male infertility situations.
Couples who are infertile secondary to nonobstructive
and concurrent varicocele, may benefit from proceeding directly to microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE) and deferring varicocele repair.
Seminal plasma proteins TEX101 and ECM1 were recently proposed for the differential diagnosis of
forms and subtypes, and for prediction of TESE outcome.
This gene belongs to the DAZ gene family required for germ cell development. It encodes an RNA-binding protein which is more similar to Drosophila Boule than to human proteins encoded by genes DAZ (deleted in
) or DAZL (deleted in
-like). Loss of this gene function results in the absence of sperm in semen (
). Histological studies demonstrated that the primary defect is at the meiotic G / M transition in fruitfly but in mice the primary defect is postmeiotic at round spermatid stage. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene.
Aspermia is the complete lack of semen with ejaculation (not to be confused with
, the lack of sperm cells in the semen). It is associated with infertility.
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