Synonyms for azoospermic or Related words with azoospermic
Examples of "azoospermic"
Wiland, Ewa. et al. (2015). FISH and array CGH characterization of de novoderivative Y chromosome (Yq duplication and partial Yp deletion) in an
male. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 31(2), 217–224.
It is recommended that men primary hypopituitarism may be linked to a genetic cause, a genetic evaluation is indicated in men with azoospermia due to primary hypopituitarism.
men with testicular failure are advised to undergo karyotype and Y-micro-deletion testing.
The success of assisted reproductive techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) encouraged reproductive clinicians to look beyond the ejaculate and into the male reproductive tract to find sperm. In men with no sperm count (azoospermia), it soon became clear that sperm could be found in the testes and used with ICSI, but sperm production was characteristically “patchy” or “focal” in
testes. FNA Mapping was designed to diagnose the degree of "patchiness" of sperm production in
men and determine, among other things, whether a sperm retrieval would succeed in a specific patient. Prior to FNA Mapping, testis biopsy was the major procedure for determining the quality of sperm presence. Testis biopsy is a more invasive procedure than FNA Mapping, and studies have shown that FNA Mapping provides better and more complete information about sperm presence.
Nandrolone hexyloxyphenylpropionate (brand names Anador, Anadur, Anadurine), also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-(3-(4-hexyloxy)phenyl)propionate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a nandrolone ester that is marketed in France, Denmark, Austria, Luxembourg, and Turkey. It has been studied as a potential long-acting injectable male contraceptive, though it has not been marketed for this indication. Approximately 70% of men became
, while the remaining men all became oligospermic.
In posttesticular azoospermia sperm are produced but not ejaculated, a condition that affects 7-51% of
men. The main cause is a physical obstruction (obstructive azoospermia) of the posttesticular genital tracts. The most common reason is a vasectomy done to induce contraceptive sterility. Other obstructions can be congenital (example agenesis of the vas deferens as seen in certain cases of cystic fibrosis) or acquired, such as ejaculatory duct obstruction for instance by infection.
In the mid-1990s, the Brazilian pharmaceutical company Hebron announced plans to market a low-dose gossypol pill called Nofertil, but the pill never came to market. Its release was indefinitely postponed due to unacceptably high rates of permanent infertility. 5-25% of the men remained
up to a year after stopping treatment. The longer the men had taken the drug and the higher their overall dosages, the more likely they were to have lowered fertility or to become completely infertile.
Vasography was first described by Belfield in 1913, where a vasotomy was initially done and the vas deferens was subsequently intubated. After almost 40 years of being overlooked, Boreau revived the procedure in the 1950s. Then, vasography was somewhat overused for various fertility disorders and other diseases such as tuberculosis, prostate cancer, hemospermia, and compressive fibrolipomatosis, without considering the possible risks and complications from the procedure. Today, vasography is used to determine the location of obstruction in
patients who have demonstrated spermatogenesis by testis biopsy.
PSA was first identified by researchers attempting to find a substance in seminal fluid that would aid in the investigation of rape cases. PSA is now used to indicate the presence of semen in forensic serology. The semen of adult males has PSA levels far in excess of those found in other tissues; therefore, a high level of PSA found in a sample is an indicator that semen may be present. Because PSA is a biomarker that is expressed independently of spermatozoa, it remains useful in identifying semen from vasectomized and
In mammals, the Y chromosome directs the development of the testes and plays an important role in spermatogenesis. A high percentage of infertile men have deletions that map to regions of the Y chromosome. The DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) gene cluster maps to the AZFc region and is deleted in many
and severely oligospermic men. It is thought that the Y chromosomal DAZ gene cluster arose from the transposition, amplification, and pruning of the ancestral autosomal gene DAZL. This gene encodes a RNA-binding protein with two RNP motifs that was originally identified by its interaction with the infertility factors DAZ and DAZL.
In another study, systematic testis FNA was used to determine which men were candidates for IVF-ICSI and to guide sperm retrieval procedures. Sperm retrieval guided by prior FNA maps was proposed as an alternative to standard sperm retrieval, which is generally performed on the same day as IVF and is associated with a significant chance of sperm retrieval failure. In 19
men, sperm retrieval guided by prior FNA mapping found sufficient sperm for all eggs at IVF in 95% of cases. In addition, FNA-directed procedures enabled simple percutaneous FNA sperm retrieval in 20% of cases, and minimized the number of biopsies (mean 3.1) and the volume of testicular tissue (mean 72 mg) taken when open biopsies were required. Testis sparing procedures are particularly important in men with atrophic or solitary testes, and sperm retrieval guided by information from prior FNA maps can conserve testis tissue. Thus, this study confirmed that FNA maps can accurately identify
patients who are candidates for sperm retrieval and ICSI. In addition, it demonstrated that FNA maps can provide crucial information with respect to the precise location of sperm in the testis and can minimize the invasiveness of sperm retrieval.
An accidental mating between a male giant eland and a female kudu produced a male offspring, but it was
. Analysis showed that it completely lacked germ cells, which produce gametes. Still, the hybrid had a strong male scent and exhibited male behaviour. Chromosomal examination showed that chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 9, and 11 differed from the parental karyotypes. Notable mixed inherited traits were pointed ears like the eland's, but a bit widened like kudu's. The tail was half the length of that of an eland with a tuft of hair at the end as in kudu.
A French study found no difference between the fertility rate of women under 25 and those ages 26–30, after which fertility started to decrease. Estimating the "fertility of a woman" is quite difficult because of the male factor (quality of sperm). This French study looked at 2,193 women who were using artificial insemination because their husbands were
. The cumulative success rates after 12 cycles of insemination were 73% for women under age 25, 74% in women ages 26–30, 61% for ages 31–35, and 54% in the over 35 age group. (Note that the study is from 1982; artificial insemination techniques and success rates have evolved greatly since then.)
An accidental mating between a male giant eland and a female kudu produced a male offspring, but it was
. Analysis showed that it completely lacked germ cells, which produce gametes. Still, the hybrid had a strong male scent and exhibited male behaviour. Chromosomal examination showed that chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 9, and 11 differed from the parental karyotypes. Notable mixed inherited traits were pointed ears as the eland's, but a bit widened like kudu's. The tail was half the length of that of an eland, with a terminal tuft of hair as in kudu. Female elands can also act as surrogates for bongos.
Currently, two kinds of maps are performed in the evaluation of
infertile men. A compound map (>4 sites/testis) is typically performed as a diagnostic test to find sperm in failing testes. For this indication, men have testis atrophy, an elevated serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level, or a prior biopsy revealing abnormal or absent spermatogenesis. A simple map (< 4 sites/testis) is used to confirm the clinical expectation of sperm production in men who may be obstructed and
. Simple FNA maps are offered to those who are planning to have reconstructive procedures (e.g., vasovasostomy) or sperm aspiration from the epididymis and who desire more complete information about spermatogenesis before proceeding with reconstruction or sperm retrieval. Regardless of the type of map, these procedures are generally diagnostic in nature. An experienced cytologist has a much better chance of finding sperm on a stained testis-tissue specimen with its higher resolution than does an andrology lab technician looking at the same tissue as part of a sperm retrieval procedure in an unstained specimen.
Sperm count, or "sperm concentration" to avoid confusion with "total sperm count", measures the concentration of sperm in a man's ejaculate, distinguished from "total sperm count", which is the sperm count multiplied with volume. Over 15 million sperm per milliliter is considered normal, according to the WHO in 2010. Older definitions state 20 million. A lower sperm count is considered oligozoospermia. A vasectomy is considered successful if the sample is
(zero sperm of any kind found). Some define success as when rare/occasional non-motile sperm are observed (fewer than 100,000 per millilitre). Others advocate obtaining a second semen analysis to verify the counts are not increasing (as can happen with re-canalization) and others still may perform a repeat vasectomy for this situation.
White's body was discovered between the foot of the bed – the room's only furniture – and the window, still clothed but with one shoe off. There was heavy bloodstaining to the base of the bed, the carpet and the walls of the room. There was very little blood on the mattress, where an opened but unused condom was found. Forensic examination found 150 different sets of finger and palm prints in the flat.
semen was present both in White's vagina and underwear, which pathologists determined had been deposited there within six hours of her death. Some of the blood found on White's clothing, including her exposed sock, was found to be from a male with the blood type AB.
The success of ICSI has also encouraged reproductive clinicians to look beyond the ejaculate and into the male reproductive tract to find sperm. Currently, sources of sperm routinely used for ICSI include sperm from the vas deferens, epididymis, and testicle. Interestingly, as ART has evolved, so too have novel FNA techniques to help diagnose and treat severe male infertility. An example of this is use of testicular FNA “mapping” to systemically assess and localize sperm for ART in men with azoospermia (no sperm count) and with testis failure characterized by “patchy” or “focal” spermatogenesis. Indeed, this combination of techniques has allowed men with even the severest forms of infertility, including men who are
after chemotherapy for cancer, to become fathers.
In a pilot study of 16 men from 1997, testis FNA was used to “map” the organ for mature sperm. The concept for mapping testis for sperm was inspired by the work of Gottschalk-Sabag and colleagues and modeled after the approach to prostate biology in which multiple prostate biopsies are used to detect foci of prostate cancer. Similarly, FNA was applied systematically to detect the presence or absence of sperm in varied geographical areas of the testis. In this study,
men underwent simultaneous testis biopsies and site-matched FNA, and FNA was found to be more sensitive in detecting sperm, as several men had sperm found by FNA but not on biopsy. Additionally, in one-third of patients, localized areas of sperm were detected by FNA in areas distant from biopsy sites without sperm. These data confirmed intratesticular heterogeneity with respect to sperm distribution and suggested the potential of FNA to localize patches of active spermatogenesis in failing testes.
It has become clear to reproductive urologists who regularly perform testis sperm retrieval in
men for IVF-ICSI that spermatogenesis varies geographically within the testis. This underscores the limitation and inadequacy of a single, localized testis biopsy or a single FNA specimen to accurately reflect the biology of the entire organ. In fact, the current clinical challenges are: (1) to determine which infertile men with azoospermia harbor sperm for IVF-ICSI and (2) to precisely locate the areas of sperm production within atrophic, nonobstructed testes. This clinical need led to the development of testis FNA “mapping” in male infertility by a team of University of California San Francisco physicians led by Dr. Paul J. Turek (Figure 1).
It is wrongly believed that ligers continue to grow throughout their lives due to hormonal issues. It may be that they simply grow far more during their growing years and take longer to reach their full adult size. Further growth in shoulder height and body length is not seen in ligers over 6 years old, as in both lions and tigers. Male ligers also have the same levels of testosterone on average as an adult male lion, yet are
in accordance with Haldane's rule. In addition, female ligers may also attain great size, weighing approximately and reaching long on average, and are often fertile. In contrast, pumapards (hybrids between pumas and leopards) tend to exhibit dwarfism.
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