Synonyms for bartolomeo_pacca or Related words with bartolomeo_pacca
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(27 December 1756, Benevento – 19 February 1844) was an Italian Cardinal, scholar and statesman as Cardinal Secretary of State.
Initially the chief candidates included Emmanuele De Gregorio and
, who had been "papabili" in the 1829 conclave, plus Giacomo Giustiniani, who was a long-serving papal diplomat but was vetoed by King Ferdinand VII.
He was elected titular archbishop of "Berito" in 1833 and was consecrated by Cardinal
. He was promoted to the archiepiscopal see of Ferrara the following year in 1834.
Meanwhile, Cardinal Carlo Bellisomi, the Apostolic Nuncio to Cologne, was transferred to Lisbon, and Archbishop
was appointed to succeed Bellisomi as nuncio. Maximilian Franz, a brother of Joseph II, refused to see Pacca, and none of the three elector-archbishops honoured Pacca's credentials. Despite protests, both Pacca and Zoglio began to exercise their powers as nuncios.
was born at Benevento, the son of the nobleman Orazio Pacca, Marquess di Matrice, and Crispina Malaspina. He was educated by the Jesuits at Naples, by the Somaschans in the Clementine College at Rome, and at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici.
45 of the 54 living cardinals participated, and
presided as Dean of the Sacred College. Cappellari, then a Camaldolese priest and prefect of the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, was also the last Pope not yet a bishop when elected.
During the Napoleonic Era when Fenestrelle was again under the French influence, it was used as a prison by the French Empire: notable prisoners were Joseph de Maistre and
. The prison also held Pierre Picaud, whose story was the inspiration for Edmond Dantès, the main character in Dumas’s "Count of Monte Cristo". The Kingdom of Sardinia locked political prisoners, Mazzini's supporters and common criminals in the fort, including the Archbishop Luigi Fransoni.
At the time of election, Cardinal Cappellari was not yet a bishop: he is the most recent man to be elected pope prior to his episcopal consecration. He was consecrated as bishop by
, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, with Pietro Francesco Galleffi, Cardinal Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina and sub-dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, and Tommasso Arezzo, Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, acting as co-consecrators.
On March 26, 1808, following the retirement of cardinal Filippo Casoni, Pius VII appointed Gabrielli Cardinal Secretary of State. Considered as the most loyal guardian of the Church and the staunchest opponent of Napoleon and general de Miollis, on June 16 he was arrested by the French troops in his office at the Quirinal Palace in Rome and forced to move to Senigallia; he was later deported to Novara, and then to Milan. Two days after the arrest, he was replaced by cardinal
as pro-Secretary of State.
It took a long time for the conclave to elect a new pope due to conflict between secular governments concerning who should be elected. Cardinal Emmanuele De Gregorio was the proposed candidate of the pro-French faction and the "zelanti" (conservative cardinals), whilst
was proposed by the more moderate cardinals but was not accepted by the French government of the Bourbon Restoration period. At the time, France was governed by Charles X and Prime Minister Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac. Pacca was also seen by many in the conclave as being too gentle to be an effective Pope.
The first chapel on the right has a "St Michael" by Sebastiano Conca. The second has a "Saints Anne, Joseph, and Mary" by Luca Giordano. The angels are by Michel Maille, Francesco Cavallini, and Francesco Baratta. In the right crossing is the funerary monument of Cardinal
(died 1863), sculpted by Ferdinando Pettrich. The main altar (of 1667), designed by Rainaldi, completed by Antonio De Rossi, Ferrata and Giovanni Paolo Schor, enshrines the image of Our Lady mentioned above. In the third chapel to the left, a "Conversion of St Paul" by Ludovico Gimignani, in the first chapel on the left, "The Holy Family and Beata Ludovica Albertoni" by Lorenzo Ottoni. At left is Chapel of St. John the Baptist, which contains the funerary monument to Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, sculpted by Giuseppe Mazzuoli.
On 2 February 1831, after a fifty-day conclave, Cappellari was unexpectedly chosen to succeed Pope Pius VIII (1829–30). His election was influenced by the fact that the cardinal considered the most "papabile", Giacomo Giustiniani, was vetoed by King Ferdinand VII of Spain. There then arose a deadlock between the other two major candidates, Emmanuele De Gregorio and
. What finally drove them to make a decision was a message from the Duke of Parma notifying them that revolt was about to break out in the northern Papal States. To resolve the impasse, the cardinals turned to Cappellari, but it took as many as eighty-three ballots for the canonically required two-thirds majority to be reached.
In the same year that he started as a professor in Bonn, Eulogius Schneider left the religious order, since his employer did not want to have a monk as a professor, and he became a "secular priest", with papal permission. In the following year, he emerged as an author of books which aroused massive protest among the clerics of the Archbishopric of Cologne, to which the university in Bonn belonged. After Schneider's employer, Archduke Maximilian Franz of Austria first tried to avoid a conflict and refused a petition for release of the Nuncio at Cologne,
, he finally reacted with a ban on sales. Schneider's public protest lead to his dismissal on June 7, 1791.
In 1814 the Carbonari wanted to obtain a constitution for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies by force. The Bourbon king, Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, was opposed to them. The Bonapartist Joachim Murat had wanted to create a united and independent Italy. In 1815 Ferdinand I found his kingdom swarming with them. Society in the "Regno" comprised nobles, officers of the army, small landlords, government officials, peasants and priests, with a small urban middle class. Society was dominated by the Papacy. On 15 August 1814, Cardinals Ercole Consalvi and
issued an edict forbidding all secret societies, to become members of these secret associations, to attend their meetings, or to furnish a meeting-place for such, under severe penalties.
Marini served as a civil assessor of the province of the Romagna from 1817 to 1820; before being named patrician of Ravenna by the city in 1820. He received the ecclesiastical tonsure in 1821. After this he became referendary of the Tribunals of the Apostolic Signatura of Justice and of Grace on 9 September 1821. He was created Domestic prelate of His Holiness. From March 1822 he served as a relator of the Sacred Congregation for Good Government. He was also a member of the Congregation of the Fabric of Saint Peter's Basilica. He served as auditor of Cardinal Camerlengo
from 1823 to 1824. He was an honorary member of the literary Academy of San Luca from 1824, a voting member of the Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature of Justice, 1824-1825, an Auditor of the Apostolic Chamber, and Auditor of the Sacred Roman Rota (8 October 1826). He was appointed governor of Rome, vice-camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and director general of police on 22 April 1845, serving until 21 December 1846.
He was created and proclaimed Cardinal-Priest of "Santa Maria in Via", but only in pectore, in the consistory of 23 February 1801. This was published in the consistory of 9 August 1802. He was appointed Prefect of the Congregation of Propaganda Fide on 24 May 1805, in addition to his duties in Jerusalem. He held the post until 20 May 1814. He was taken to France together with Cardinal Ercole Consalvi in December 1809 and banished to Semur for not attending Napoleon's wedding with Maria Louise. He was imprisoned in the fortress of Vincennes at the end of 1810 for sending the papal order to the clergy of Paris not to recognise Jean-Siffrein Maury as Archbishop of Paris. He was appointed Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary ad interim in 1811, holding the post until 1814. He was freed in January 1813, and arrested again in April. He was considered responsible, together with
, for Pope Pius VII's retraction of his agreement with Napoleon. One of the most distinguished "black cardinals" (prohibited by Napoleon to wear red cardinalitial habit). He was made full Major Penitentiary in 1814. He opted for the order of bishops and the suburbicarian see of Albano in 1816. He was appointed Prefect of the Congregation of the Index in 1818. He opted for the suburbicarian see of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1820. He died in July 1821. His funeral took place on 5 July 1821 and he is buried in the cathedral of Albano.
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