Synonyms for bpdu or Related words with bpdu

bpdus              lldp              gvrp              rstp              rreq              mstp              rbridge              rrep              mvrp              gmrp              rpr              mmrp              rlp              lacp              drcp              bfd              rmcp              drcpdu              bdpu              pmtu              dllp              dcbx              resv              fpdu              fcoe              wlccp              fdf              keepalive              mpdu              mldp              beb              becn              trill              dhcprequest              lacpdu              dhcpoffer              rscn              dhcpdiscover              fip              dhcpack              forwarder              msti              decapsulated              tlp              rrq              pseudowire              mpcp              flit              packetin              gsrp             



Examples of "bpdu"
BPDU table info and STP BPDUs show a deeper resume of the MSTP BPDU format and, besides, some additional information about how was this object structured in older or different versions of this protocol as STP and RSTP, maintaining its compatibility.
There are two types of BPDUs in the original STP specification (the Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP) extension uses a specific RSTP BPDU):
In summary, the sequence of events to determine the best received BPDU (which is the best path to the root) is
In summary, MSTP encodes some additional information in its BPDU regarding region information and configuration, each of these messages conveys the spanning tree information for each instance. Each instance can be assigned several configured VLANs, frames (packets) assigned to these VLANs operate in this spanning tree instance whenever they are inside the MST region. To avoid conveying their entire VLAN to spanning tree mapping in each BPDU, bridges encode an MD5 digest of their VLAN to instance table in the MSTP BPDU. This digest is then used by other MSTP bridges, along with other administratively configured values, to determine if the neighboring bridge is in the same MST region as itself.
For all the above, it can be concluded that MSTP is fully compatible with RSTP bridges, an MSTP BPDU can be interpreted by an RSTP bridge as an RSTP BPDU. This not only allows compatibility with RSTP bridges without configuration changes, but also causes any RSTP bridges outside of an MSTP Region to see the region as a single RSTP bridge, regardless of the number of MSTP bridges inside the region itself.
A bridge sends a BPDU frame using the unique MAC address of the port itself as a source address, and a destination address of the STP multicast address 01:80:C2:00:00:00.
Unlike some proprietary per-VLAN spanning tree implementations, MSTP includes all of its spanning tree information in a single BPDU format. Not only does this reduce the number of BPDUs required on a LAN to communicate spanning tree information for each VLAN, but it also ensures backward compatibility with RSTP (and in effect, classic STP too). MSTP does this by encoding additional region information after the standard RSTP BPDU as well as a number of MSTI messages (from 0 to 64 instances, although in practice many bridges support fewer). Each of these MSTI configuration messages conveys the spanning tree information for each instance. Each instance can be assigned a number of configured VLANs and frames (packets) assigned to these VLANs operate in this spanning tree instance whenever they are inside the MST region. In order to avoid conveying their entire VLAN to spanning tree mapping in each BPDU, bridges encode an MD5 digest of their VLAN to instance table in the MSTP BPDU. This digest is then used by other MSTP bridges, along with other administratively configured values, to determine if the neighboring bridge is in the same MST region as itself.
Its main function is enabling MSTP to select its root bridges for the proper CIST and each MSTI. MSTP includes all its spanning tree information in a single BPDU format. Not only does reduce the number of BPDUs required on a LANs to communicate spanning tree information for each VLAN, but it also ensures backward compatibility with RSTP (and in effect, classic STP too).
"Least cost path from each bridge." After the root bridge has been chosen, each bridge determines the cost of each possible path from itself to the root. The calculation is done by comparing the 'root path cost' of the BPDUs that each bridge gets on each of its ports. The root bridge sends BPDUs with path cost equal to zero, and once a non-root bridge gets a BPDU it increments the path cost by adding the cost of the incoming link and propagates it on the network. The port that gets the BPDU with the smallest path cost (e.g., connecting the switch to the least-cost path) then becomes the "root port" (RP) of the bridge.
AMSTP BPDUs use the same local multicast protocol addresses than STP and have a structure that resembles MSTP BPDUs since both are comprised essentially of a basic BPDU and several AM-Records, allowing full-backwards compatibility with RSTP and STP standard protocols. Each of the AM-Records contains the data used to negotiate a specific tree instance (AMSTI). Every ABridge, except for the elected root bridge, creates an AM-Record for its own spanning tree instances. They are used by connected Ports of neighboring switches to negotiate the transitions of each tree instance with a proposal/agreement mechanism.
MSTP is fully compatible with RSTP bridges, in that an MSTP BPDU can be interpreted by an RSTP bridge as an RSTP BPDU. This not only allows compatibility with RSTP bridges without configuration changes, but also causes any RSTP bridges outside of an MSTP region to see the region as a single RSTP bridge, regardless of the number of MSTP bridges inside the region itself. In order to further facilitate this view of an MST region as a single RSTP bridge, the MSTP protocol uses a variable known as remaining hops as a time to live counter instead of the message age timer used by RSTP. The message age time is only incremented once when spanning tree information enters an MST region, and therefore RSTP bridges will see a region as only one "hop" in the spanning tree. Ports at the edge of an MST region connected to either an RSTP or STP bridge or an endpoint are known as boundary ports. As in RSTP, these ports can be configured as edge ports to facilitate rapid changes to the forwarding state when connected to endpoints.
The bridge ID, or BID, is a field inside a BPDU packet. It is eight bytes in length. The first two bytes are the bridge priority, an unsigned integer of 0-65,535. The last six bytes are a MAC address supplied by the bridge. Prior to IEEE 802.1D-2004, the first two bytes gave a 16 bit bridge priority. Since IEEE 802.1D-2004, the first four bits are a configurable priority, and the last twelve bits carry the bridge system ID extension. In the case of MST, the bridge system ID extension carries the MSTP instance number. Some vendors set the bridge system ID extension to carry a VLAN ID allowing a different spanning tree per VLAN, such as Cisco's PVST.
To set up these trees, AMSTP relies in one basic tree which will be used to obtain instances (named Alternate Multiple Spanning Tree Instances – AMSTI), until one of them is built per switch for the network. The process applied to build up the main/basic tree is the same as in RSTP. In summary, firstly a bridge must be elected as the Root Bridge (this is done by the emission of BPDUs from each switch on the network periodically, every “Hello Time”, and selecting the lowest Bridge ID). Then, every switch will compute and calculate its cost to the Root Bridge and, afterwards, the root Ports must be elected by selecting the one which receives the best BPDU, this is, the one that announces minimum path cost to root bridge.
If any changes occur in the layer 2 network, such as when a link goes down, a new link is added, a new switch is added, or a switch fails, the switches share this information by transmitting BPDUs, causing the STP algorithm to be re-executed, and a new loop-free topology is then created. STP and BPDUs help speed up convergence. Convergence is a term used in networking to describe the amount of time it takes to deal with changes and get the network back up and running. The default BPDU advertisement time of 2 seconds allows changes to be quickly shared with all the other switches in the network, reducing the amount of time any disruption would create.