Synonyms for caliph_abd_ar_rahman or Related words with caliph_abd_ar_rahman

ottoman_sultan_murad              sultan_mehmet              ottoman_sultan_mehmed              emir_abd_ar_rahman              caliph_al_hakam              pope_callistus              king_mongkut_rama              serbian_patriarch_arsenije              ottoman_sultan_mahmud              caliph_marwan              abd_ar_rahman              antipope_victor              sālote_tupou              khedive_abbas              ziyadat_allah              harvie_wilkinson              artashir              sennar_sultanate_badi              sultan_mehmed              byzantine_emperor_romanos              emperor_romanos              patriarch_maximos              ramón_berenguer              sultan_bayezid              maharaja_sayajirao_gaekwad              mahmud_keita              byzantine_emperor_theodosius              benigno_simeon_aquino              byzantine_emperor_constans              count_ermengol              papa_eftim              avignon_pope_clement              king_vajiravudh_rama              al_hakam              ottoman_sultan_abdülhamid              sultan_muhammad_shamsuddeen              ottoman_sultan_bayezid              emperor_alexios              ottoman_sultan_selim              seljuk_sultan_kilij_arslan              umayyad_caliph_marwan              abderramán              abdul_jalil_shah              krishna_raja_wadiyar              thutmoses              sigmund_snopek              caliph_yazid              vermudo              roman_emperor_constantius              mansa_mahmud             

Examples of "caliph_abd_ar_rahman"
The historian Said al-Andalusi wrote that Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III had collected libraries of books and granted patronage to scholars of medicine and "ancient sciences". Later, "al-Mustansir" (Al-Hakam II) went yet further, building a university and libraries in Córdoba. Córdoba became one of the world's leading centres of medicine and philosophical debate.
He died in 927 fighting the Masmuda Berbers near Tangier, and was succeeded politically by his son Isa, who sent an embassy to the Umayyad Caliph Abd-ar-rahman III an-Nasir. His religion's later history is unclear, but it vanished well before even Ibn Khaldun's time.
Nevertheless, the Guadalquivir River valley in present-day Andalusia became the hub of Muslim power in the peninsula, with the Caliphate of Córdoba making Córdoba its capital. The Umayyad Caliphate produced such leaders as Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III (ruled 912–961) and his son, Caliph Al-Hakam II (ruled 961–976); and built the magnificent Great Mosque of Córdoba. Under these rulers, Moorish Islam in Spain reached its zenith, and Córdoba was a center of global economic and cultural significance.
By the 10th century, the Christians of northern Spain had begun what would eventually become the Reconquista: the reconquest of Spain for Christendom. Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman suffered some minor military defeats, but often managed to manipulate the Christian kingdoms to act against each other's interests. Al-Hakam achieved military successes, but at the expense of uniting the Christian kings of the north against him.
She was the daughter of Aznar Sánchez, lord of Larraun, paternal grandson of king García Íñiguez of Pamplona, while her mother Onneca Fortúnez was a daughter of king Fortún Garcés. Thus, Toda's children were also descendants of the Arista dynasty of Navarrese monarchs. She was sister of Sancha Aznárez, wife of king Jimeno Garcés, her husband's brother and successor, while Toda and Sancha were also aunts of Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III, through their mother's first marriage to ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad.
The Muslims who entered Iberia in 711 were mainly Berbers, and were led by a Berber, Tariq ibn Ziyad, though under the suzerainty of the Arab Caliph of Damascus Abd al-Malik and his North African Viceroy, Musa ibn Nusayr. A second mixed army of Arabs and Berbers came in 712 under Ibn Nusayr himself. It is claimed they formed approximately 66% of the Islamic population in Iberia; supposedly they helped the Umayyad caliph Abd ar-Rahman I in Al-Andalus, because his mother was a Berber.
The Akhbār majmūʿa fī fatḥ al-Andalus ("Collection of Anecdotes on the Conquest of al-Andalus") is an anonymous history of al-Andalus compiled in the second decade of the 11th century and only preserved in a single manuscript, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Parts of it date to the 8th and 9th centuries, and it is the earliest Arabic history of al-Andalus, covering the period from the Arab conquest (711) until the reign of the Caliph Abd ar-Rahman III (929–61). The "Akhbār majmūʿa" is sometimes called the "Anonymous of Paris", after the home of its manuscript, or the "Anonymous of Córdoba", after its presumed place of origin.
The American historian, Richard Bulliet, in a work based on the quantitative use of the onomastic data as furnished by scholarly biographical dictionaries, concluded that it was only in the 10th century when the Andalusi emirate was firmly established and developed into the greatest power of the western Mediterranean under Caliph Abd ar-Rahman III, that the numerical ratio of Muslims and Christians in Al-Andalus was reversed in favour of the former. Prior to the middle of this century, he asserts, the population of Al-Andalus was still half Christian.
Each of the provinces shows a great variety of architectural styles: Islamic architecture, Renaissance architecture, Baroque architecture and more modern styles. Further, there are the "Lugares colombinos", significant places in the life of Christopher Columbus: Palos de la Frontera, La Rábida Monastery, and Moguer) in the province of Huelva. There are also archeological sites of great interest: the Roman city of Italica, birthplace of Emperor Trajan and (most likely) Hadrian; Baelo Claudia near the Straits of Gibraltar; Medina Azahara, the city-palace of the Cordoban caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III, where major excavations still continue.
In 953, he was sent as ambassador for Emperor Otto I to the Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III of Córdoba for three years. John had travelled by way of Langres, Dijon, Lyon, Avignon, and Barcelona (Parisse, "La vie de Jean", 17). From Barcelona, he had proceeded to Tortosa, then Zaragoza, and finally Córdoba. The purpose of this mission was to stop the attacks made by Andalusian adventurers from their base at Fraxinet. John of Gorze arrived in 953-954 with his companions at Córdoba with a letter from Otto as well as valuable gifts. John lived in a palace close to the caliphal palace in Córdoba.
The city, which flourished for approximately 80 years, was built by caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III of Córdoba starting between 936 and 940. After he had proclaimed himself caliph in 928, he decided to show his subjects and the world his power by building a palace-city 5 km from Córdoba. The largest known city built from scratch in Western Europe, it would be described by travelers from northern Europe and from the East as a dazzling series of palaces full of treasures never seen before. Around 1010, Madinat az-Zahra was sacked during the civil war that led to the dissolution of the Caliphate of Cordoba. The raid effectively wiped the city off the map for a millennium.
One of the oldest written sources, which could indicate the presence of Jews on Croatian territory, comes from the letter of the vizier Hasdai ibn Shaprut, which was sent to King Joseph of the Khazars. This letter from the 10th century refers to the "King of the Gebalim - Slavs", see the article Miholjanec, whose country borders the country of the Hungarians. The King sent a delegation, which included "Mar (Aramaic:"Lord") Shaul and Mar Joseph", to the Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III of Córdoba. Delegates reported that "mar" Hisdai Amram came to the Khazar king's palace from the country where the "Gebalim" lived. In Hebrew "gebal" means "mountain". Hungarian sources reported, that a vineyard near Miholjanec was named "master of the mountain". Croatia is also represented as a country of "Gebalim" in a letter of Bishop Gauderich addressed to Anastasius as a co-author of the legend of Cherson in the 9th century.
Saint Pelagius of Cordova (c. 912–926) (also called San Pelayo Mártir) is said to have been a Christian boy left by his uncle at the age of ten as a hostage with the Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III of al-Andalus, in trade for a clerical relative previously captured by the Moors, the bishop Hermoygius. The exchange never occurred, and Pelagius remained a captive for three years. The modern version of the story is that according to the testimony of other prisoners, his courage and faith was such that the Caliph was impressed with him when he had attained the age of 13. The Caliph offered him his freedom if Pelagius converted to Islam. The boy, having remained a pious Christian, refused the Caliph's offer.
The Muslims who invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 were mainly Berbers, and were led by a Berber, Tariq ibn Ziyad, though under the suzerainty of the Arab Caliph of Damascus Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and his North African Viceroy, Musa ibn Nusayr. Due to subsequent antagonism between Arabs and Berbers, and to the fact that most of the histories of Al-Andalus were written from an Arab perspective, the Berber role is understated in the available sources. The biographical dictionary of Ibn Khallikan preserves the record of the Berber predominance in the invasion of 711, in the entry on Tariq ibn Ziyad. A second mixed army of Arabs and Berbers came in 712 under Ibn Nusayr himself. They supposedly helped the Umayyad caliph Abd ar-Rahman I in Al-Andalus, because his mother was a Berber.
His father, Isaac ben Ezra, was a wealthy and learned Jew of Jaén. Hasdai acquired in his youth a thorough knowledge of Hebrew, Arabic, and Latin, the last-named language being at that time known only to the higher clergy of Spain. He also studied medicine, and is said to have discovered a panacea, called "Al-Faruk". Appointed physician to Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III (912-961), he, by his engaging manners, knowledge, character, and extraordinary ability, gained his master's confidence to such a degree that he became the caliph's confidant and faithful counselor. Without bearing the title of vizier he was in reality minister of foreign affairs; he had also control of the customs and ship-dues in the port of Córdoba. Hasdai arranged the alliances formed by the caliph with foreign powers, and he received the envoys sent by the latter to Córdoba. In 949 an embassy was sent by Constantine VII. to form a diplomatic league between the hard-pressed Byzantine empire and the powerful ruler of Spain. Among the presents brought by the embassy was a magnificent codex of Pedanius Dioscorides' work on botany, which the Arabic physicians and naturalists valued highly. Hasdai, with the aid of a learned Greek monk named Nicholas, translated it into Arabic, making it thereby the common property of the Arabs and of medieval Europe.