Synonyms for charophyceae or Related words with charophyceae
Examples of "charophyceae"
is a class (biology) of charophyte green algae. Some botanists include
and chlorophyte green algae in the plant kingdom.
are a class within the Streptophyta. Current consensus treats
as a class under division Charophyta, with Chlorophyta remaining a distinct division.
This section lists the orders of Viridiplantae within the class
are obligate aquatic algae, growing submerged in calcareous fresh water. They are distributed throughout the world from the tropics to cold temperate zones.
Charales is an order of freshwater green algae in the division Charophyta, class
, commonly known as "stoneworts". Linnaeus established the genus "Chara" in 1753.
The Phytoplankton species are a composition of different families namely, Chlorophyceae (18) which is the foremost group, Chrysophyceae (15), Cyanophyceae (11), and one species each of
, Euglenophyceae, Dinophyceae and Cryptophyceae.
The composition of the Streptophyta and similar groups (Streptophytina, Charophyta) varies in each classification. Some authors are more restrictive, including only the Charales and Embryophyta (e.g., Streptophyta , Streptophytina ), others include more groups (e.g., Charophyta , Streptophyta , Streptobionta ; some authors use this broader definition, but exclude the Embryophyta, e.g., Charophyta ,
, Streptophycophytes ).
The algae are a polyphyletic group and are placed in various divisions, some more closely related to plants than others. There are many differences between them in features such as cell wall composition, biochemistry, pigmentation, chloroplast structure and nutrient reserves. The algal division Charophyta, sister to the green algal division Chlorophyta, is considered to contain the ancestor of true plants. The Charophyte class
and the land plant sub-kingdom Embryophyta together form the monophyletic group or clade Streptophytina.
Cytokinesis in green algae occurs via a diverse range of mechanisms, including cleavage furrows in some algae and cell plates in others. Some green algae of the class "
" use phragmoplasts similar to those in embryophytes to organize and guide the growing cell plate. In these algae, the microtubules of the telophase spindle give rise to the phragmoplast and are oriented perpendicular to the plane of cell division and the forming cell plate. The growth of the cell plate eventually disrupts the telophase spindle (see case 4 in picture).
Xyloglucan is a hemicellulose that occurs in the primary cell wall of all vascular plants; however, essential enzymes for xyloglucan metabolism, like XTH and β1→4-Glucan Synthase are found in
algae. In many dicotyledonous plants, it is the most abundant hemicellulose in the primary cell wall. Xyloglucan binds to the surface of cellulose microfibrils and may link them together. It is the substrate of , which cuts and ligates xyloglucans, as a means of integrating new xyloglucans into the cell wall. It is also thought to be the substrate of alpha-expansin, which promotes cell wall enlargement.
Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them. Plasmodesmata evolved independently in several lineages, and species that have these structures include members of the
, Charales, Coleochaetales and Phaeophyceae (which are all algae), as well as all embryophytes, better known as land plants. Unlike animal cells, almost every plant cell is surrounded by a polysaccharide cell wall. Neighbouring plant cells are therefore separated by a pair of cell walls and the intervening middle lamella, forming an extracellular domain known as the apoplast. Although cell walls are permeable to small soluble proteins and other solutes, plasmodesmata enable direct, regulated, symplastic transport of substances between cells. There are two forms of plasmodesmata: primary plasmodesmata, which are formed during cell division, and secondary plasmodesmata, which can form between mature cells.
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