Synonyms for chimariko or Related words with chimariko

shastan              tanoan              karuk              maiduan              muskogean              atsugewi              misumalpan              yokutsan              keresan              chimakuan              yokuts              wintuan              salishan              shoshonean              wappo              phuthi              palaihnihan              washo              wakashan              pomoan              panoan              wiyot              chicomuceltec              zoquean              athapaskan              sahaptian              numic              totonacan              athabascan              eyak              yuman              konkow              yurok              chumashan              catawban              caddoan              chukotko              siouan              arawakan              nihali              huave              aztecan              otomanguean              surmic              costanoan              nisenan              dyirbal              burushaski              tlapanecan              cariban             



Examples of "chimariko"
Chimariko people spoke the Chimariko language, a Northern Hokan language. The language is currently extinct.
Chimariko traditional narratives include myths, legends, tales, and oral histories preserved by the Chimariko people who lived on the Trinity River of northwestern California.
Proposals linking Chimariko to other languages in various versions of the hypothetical Hokan family have been advanced. Roland Dixon suggested a relationship between Chimariko and the Shastan and Palaihnihan families. Edward Sapir's famous grouped Chimariko with Shastan, Palaihnihan, Pomoan, and the Karuk and Yana languages in a Hokan sub-grouping known as "Northern Hokan". A "Kahi" family consisting of Chimariko, Shastan, Palaihnihan, and Karuk has been suggested (appearing also within Sapir's 1929 "Northern Hokan"). Most specialists currently find these relationships to be undemonstrated, and consider Chimariko to remain best considered an isolate.
The last Chimariko speaker was Martha Ziegler who died in the 1950s (Golla, 2011, p. 89). According to Golla, "[m]odern Chimariko descendants, organized as the Tsnungwe Tribe (from Hupa "cʰe:niŋxʷe:" 'Ironside Mountain people') and seeking federal acknowledgement, consider both Hupa and Chimariko to be their heritage languages, but emphasize Hupa for purposes of cultural revitalization" (p. 89). There are no programs available to either teach or revitalize Chimariko from its current status of extinct (p. 89).
Chimariko shares syllabic similarities with other languages in Northern California. The most common syllable structures for Chimariko are CV and CVC, with the largest possible structures being CCVC or CVCC.
The Chimariko lived within a region where cultural influences from central California, the Northwest Coast, the Plateau, and the Great Basin overlapped. Motifs from all these regions would be expected in Chimariko oral literature. ("See also" Traditional narratives (Native California).)
Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber proposed that the 1770 population of the Chimariko, together with the New River, Konomihu, and Okwanuchu groups of the Shasta, had been about 1,000. Specifically for the Chimariko, he estimated an 1849 population of 250. Shirley Silver (1978:205) put the aboriginal population at "only a few hundred". Other estimates are that there were 250 Chimariko people in the 18th and early 19th centuries, moving down to 200 in 1852, 20 in 1880, and none by 1900. There may have been descendants of the Chimariko recently discovering their identity, since some Chimariko fled with the Hupa and Shasta. In the 2010 census, 60 people claimed Chimariko ancestry, 19 of them full-blooded.
USS "Chimariko" (ATF-154) was an "Abnaki" class Fleet Ocean Tug of the United States Navy and the first to be named Chimariko after the Native American tribe in California.
Chimariko does not use numeral classifiers. Also lacking is a clear pattern to indicate control.
Noun incorporation is present in Chimariko. The verbs have prefixes, suffixes and a circumfix.
Non-native fur trappers first entered Chimariko's territory in 1820, following by miners and settlers in the 1850s. The Chimariko were profoundly affected by the destructive practices of gold seekers during California Gold Rush during the 1850s. One of the major issues involved the disruption of the salmon population that was the main food source of the Chimariko. In the 1860s, conflict between Chimariko and white miners led to almost total extinction of the entire population. The surviving Chimariko fled to live with the Hupa and Shasta.
The vowel inventory of Chimariko is: i, e, a, o, u.
According to Carmen Jany, "no other language has the exact same system as Chimariko". Chimariko uses both a decimal and quinary numeral systems. Numerals appear in noun phrases, do not take affixes (except for the determinative suffix "-lle"), can either follow or precede the noun, and can appear without a noun.
Sally Noble was the last speaker of the Chimariko language. She worked with linguist and ethnologist J.P. Harrington to record what she remembered of the language.
Because the documentary corpus of Chimariko was limited, the description of the grammar of the language was not complete. However, general observations were made.
The Chimariko people lived along the Trinity River canyon near its confluence with the New River. They were enemies of the Hupa, but had friendly relations with the Wintu. The now extinct Chimariko language was of Northern Hokan origin, in contrast to the Athabaskan dialect of the Hupa and the Wintuan languages spoken by the Wintu. Carl Waldman describes in "Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes" (2014) that "the Chimariko occupied one of the smallest homelands, if not the smallest, of any distinct linguistic group in North America."
Chimariko is an extinct language isolate formerly spoken in northern Trinity County, California, by the inhabitants of several independent communities. While the total area claimed by these communities was remarkably small, Golla (2011:87–89) believes there is evidence that three local dialects were recognized: "Trinity River Chimariko," spoken along the Trinity River from the mouth of South Fork at Salyer as far upstream as Big Bar, with a principal village at Burnt Ranch; "South Fork Chimariko," spoken around the junction of South Fork and Hayfork Creek, with a principal village at Hyampom; and "New River Chimariko," spoken along New River on the southern slopes of the Trinity Alps, with a principal village at Denny.
The Chimariko also suffered heavily when European prospectors entered the region in the 19th century searching for gold. After clashing with the Europeans, many members of the tribe were dispersed to Shasta territory or killed. Some returned to the Trinity River in the late 19th century, after the gold seekers had left. People of Chimariko ancestry continue to live in the region, although the tribe functionally no longer exists.
The Chimariko are an indigenous people of California, who originally lived in a narrow, 20-mile section of canyon on the Trinity River in Trinity County in northwestern California.
Originally hunter-gatherers, the Chimariko are possibly the earliest residents of their region. They had good relations with Wintu people and were enemies of the Hupa, a Southern Athabaskan people.