Synonyms for chorioretinitis or Related words with chorioretinitis


Examples of "chorioretinitis"
Chorioretinitis is often caused by toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus infections (mostly seen in immunodeficient subjects such as people with HIV or on immunosuppressant drugs). Congenital toxoplasmosis via transplacental transmission can also lead to sequelae such as chorioretinitis along with hydrocephalus and cerebral calcifications. Other possible causes of chorioretinitis are syphilis, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Behcet's disease, onchocerciasis, or West Nile virus. Chorioretinitis may also occur in presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS); despite its name, the relationship of POHS to "Histoplasma" is controversial.
The classic triad of congenital toxoplasmosis includes: chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications
"Toxoplasma gondii" is an intracellular parasite that causes a necrotizing chorioretinitis.
Ocular complications, though rare, are listed as optic atrophy, microphthalmia, pigmentary chorioretinitis, hemeralopia (decreased vision in bright light), myopia, strabismus, nystagmus and iris/retinal coloboma.
Under ophthalmic examination, toxoplasmic chorioretinitis classically appears as a focal, white retinitis with overlying moderate inflammation of the vitreous humour. A unifocal area of acute-onset inflammation adjacent to an old chorioretinal scar is virtually pathognomonic for toxoplasmic chorioretinitis. Focal condensation of vitreous and inflammatory cells may be seen overlying the pale yellow or gray-white raised lesion in the posterior pole.
Chorioretinitis is usually treated with a combination of corticosteroids and antibiotics. However, if there is an underlying cause such as HIV, specific therapy can be started as well.
Neuroimaging is warranted in AIDS patients presenting with these findings because intracranial toxoplasmic lesions have been reported in up to 29% of these patients who have toxoplasmic chorioretinitis.
Infants that are infected by the protozoan"Toxoplasma gondii" in utero can be born with chorioretinitis or ocular toxoplasmosis. Globally, it is the most common cause of infections of the back of the eye. (posterior segment). The most common sign is decreased vision in one eye. Other signs and symptoms may appear after the neonatal period and include: miscarriage, stillbirth, chorioretinitis development later in life, intracranial calcification hydrocephalus or central nervous system abnormalities.
Though caused by different infections, the signs and symptoms of TORCH syndrome are consistent. They include hepatosplenomegaly (enlargement of the liver and spleen), fever, lethargy, difficulty feeding, anemia, petechiae, purpurae, jaundice, and chorioretinitis. The specific infection may cause additional symptoms.
There are numerous conditions leading to uveitis, and many have floaters and blurred vision as predominant symptoms: sarcoidosis, toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis, ocular histoplasmosis, multifocal choroiditis, pars planitis, endophalmitis, syphilis, candidiasis, viral uveitis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, and HIV related uveitis.
Chorioretinitis is an inflammation of the choroid (thin pigmented vascular coat of the eye) and retina of the eye. It is a form of posterior uveitis. If only the choroid is inflamed, not the retina, the condition is termed choroiditis. The ophthalmologist's goal in treating these potentially blinding conditions is to eliminate the inflammation and minimize the potential risk of therapy to the patient.
Another known cause is a rare genetic condition called Cohen Syndrome (aka Pepper Syndrome). Cohen syndrome is mostly characterized by obesity, mental retardation, and craniofacial dysmorphism due to genetic mutation at locus 8q22-23. Rarely it may have ocular complications such as hemeralopia, pigmentary chorioretinitis, optic atrophy or retinal/iris coloboma, having a serious effect on the person's vision.
Presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) causes chorioretinitis, where the choroid and retina of the eyes are scarred, resulting in a loss of vision not unlike macular degeneration. Despite its name, the relationship to "Histoplasma" is controversial. Distinct from POHS, acute ocular histoplasmosis may rarely occur in immunodeficiency.
Current teleophthalmological solutions are generally focused on a particular eye problem, such as diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, macular degeneration, strabismus and adnexal eye diseases. Less common conditions that can be revealed using retinal images are arterial and vein occlusions, chorioretinitis, congenital anomalies, and tapetoretinal abitrophy. Several population-based studies have used retinal imaging to relate ophthalmic abnormalities to general conditions, including hypertension, renal dysfunction, cardiovascular mortality, subclinical and clinical stroke, and cognitive impairment.
The first recorded case of congenital toxoplasmosis was in 1923, but it was not identified as caused by "T. gondii". Janků (1923) described in detail the autopsy results of an 11-month-old boy who had presented to hospital with hydrocephalus. The boy had classic marks of toxoplasmosis including chorioretinitis (inflammation of the choroid and retina of the eye). Histology revealed a number of "sporocytes", though Janků did not identify these as "T. gondii".
Dirksen continued to be re-elected. In 1947, he began to experience trouble in his right eye, which was diagnosed as chorioretinitis. Despite a number of physicians (including one from Johns Hopkins University) recommending for the eye to be removed, Dirksen chose treatment and rest; he recovered most of the sight in that eye. In 1948, he declined to run for re-election because of his ailment. He returned to politics two years later and was popularly elected to the Senate from Illinois.
Toxoplasma chorioretinitis, more simply known as ocular toxoplasmosis, is probably the most common cause of infections in the back of the eye (posterior segment) worldwide. The causitive agent is "Toxoplasma gondii", and in the United States, most cases are acquired congenitally. The most common symptom is decreased visual acuity in one eye. The diagnosis is made by examination of the eye, using ophthalmoscopy. Sometimes serologic testing is used to rule out the disease, but due to high rates of false positives, serologies are not diagnostic of toxoplasmic retinitis.
In the US corticotropin is used to treat epileptic spasms in infants, acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis in adults; acute episodes of psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis; in acute exacerbations or as maintenance therapy for the collagen disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic dermatomyositis; for skin conditions like severe erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome; for serum sickness; for severe acute and chronic allergic and inflammatory processes involving the eye such as keratitis, iritis, iridocyclitis, diffuse posterior uveitis, choroiditis, optic neuritis, chorioretinitis, and anterior segment inflammation; sarcoidosis in the lungs; and to treat edema in certain nephrotic syndromes.
Congenital toxoplasmosis is a specific form of toxoplasmosis in which an unborn fetus is infected via the placenta. Congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with fetal death and abortion, and in infants, it is associated with neurologic deficits, neurocognitive deficits, and chorioretinitis. A positive antibody titer indicates previous exposure and immunity, and largely ensures the unborn fetus' safety. A simple blood draw at the first prenatal doctor visit can determine whether or not a woman has had previous exposure and therefore whether or not she is at risk. If a woman receives her first exposure to "T. gondii" while pregnant, the fetus is at particular risk.
"T. gondii" was first identified as a human pathogen in 1939. Wolf, Cowen and Paige identified "T. gondii" infection in an infant girl delivered full-term by Caesarean section. The infant developed seizures and had chorioretinitis in both eyes at three days. The infant then developed encephalomyelitis and died at one month of age. Wolf, Cowen and Paige isolated "T. gondii" from brain tissue lesions. Intracranial injection of brain and spinal cord samples into mice, rabbits and rats produced encephalitis in the animals. Wolf, Cowen and Page reviewed additional cases and concluded that "T. gondii" produced recognizable symptoms and could be transmitted from mother to child.