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(24 March 1869 – 11 June 1933) was an Italian politician and journalist.
Leading members and activists of the party included Oddino Morgari, Sandro Pertini, Camillo Prampolini,
and Anna Kulischov.
Sidney Sonnino and the Socialists Filippo Turati and
proposed to introduce also the female suffrage, but Giolitti strongly opposed it, considering it too risky, and suggested to introduce the female suffrage only at local level.
At the invitation of Salvatorelli, who was the associate managing editor, he began to contribute to La Stampa, where he testified to the political climate in Rome in the days following the passing of Giacomo Matteotti. On occasion, he also had contact with various leaders of the anti-Fascist opposition, including Giovanni Amendola, Carlo Sforza and
was born in Turin into a well off assimilated Jewish family. As a student he participated in the Radical milieu of Turin and, in 1888, he joined first his university's student radical circle, then the local independent labor union, influenced by the Milanese socialist Filippo Turati. In 1892 he graduated in law and made his way into the militant socialist community.
Deprived of resources, writers such as Turati, Anna Kulischov, Giacomo Matteotti,
, and Carlo Rosselli continued to defend the democratic order which was being swept away by the Fascists, and total censorship loomed. Its last political article was published the day after the murder of Giacomo Matteotti on 10 June 1924, an act which Mussolini used to take absolute power in Italy.
"Quarto Stato" was first published in Milan by Carlo Rosselli and Pietro Nenni on 27 March 1926. They also edited the magazine, which was close to the reformist Partito Socialista Unitario of Filippo Turati, Giacomo Matteotti and
, which had split from the PSI. It was banned on 30 October 1926 after only a few months by the Fascist government, and its editors were imprisoned.
Born in Milan in 1908, son of the well-known Italian socialist
(1869-1933). Paolo Treves worked for the Milanese socialist paper La Giustizia in the early 1920s and studied under Benedetto Croce, with whom he corresponded until the outbreak of war despite the latter's tacit support for Benito Mussolini. After the Fascist takeover, Paolo was singled out and detained for several months by the government, primarily because of Mussolini's hatred of the elder Treves.
He left the party in 1922 to join Filippo Turati and
in creating the Unitary Socialist Party (PSU). With Fascism and the March on Rome came a debate among socialists over the conflict and pacifism: in 1934, Morgari showed himself to be a partisan of an understanding with the Soviet Union, and called for defeatism to be applied as a revolutionary tactic in case Italy was to be led into war by Benito Mussolini. As the PSU re-entered the PSI in 1930, he became a member of the PSI Executive Committee in 1939 (together with Angelo Tasca and Giuseppe Saragat), as well as editor-in-chief of "Avanti!".
Levi was born in Turin, Piedmont, to wealthy Jewish physician Ercole Levi and Annetta Treves, the sister of
, an important socialist leader in Italy. Levi graduated from high school ("Liceo Alfieri") in 1917. Upon graduation, Levi attended the University of Turin, where he studied medicine and, in 1924, graduated with high marks. While at university, Levi had become friends with Piero Gobetti who sparked Levi's interests in political activism that would continue throughout his life. Soon after graduation from the University of Turin, Levi exhibited some of his works at the XIV Venice Biennale.
Rosselli was born in Rome to a prominent Jewish family, and was the brother of Carlo Rosselli. Nello was a member of the reformist Unitary Socialist Party of Filippo Turati, Giacomo Matteotti and
, which had split from the PSI. After the rise of Fascism, he fled to France with his brother, and from there was active in anti-Fascist and socialist politics, helping to found the group Giustizia e Libertà and aiding the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War, as well as carrying out propaganda missions within Italy.
Levi never completely abandoned his medical studies and served as assistant to Prof. Micheli at the University of Turin's Clinic from 1924 to 1928, working on research involving hepatopathy and diseases of bile tract. From 1924 to 1928, Levi continued his specialization studies in Paris with Professor Bourguignon among others, although by 1927 Levi had decided to dedicate his life to painting. Levi's early time in Paris, as a painter and as a student of medicine, brought him into contact with many notable personalities of the 20th century, including Sergei Prokofiev, Igor Stravinsky, Alberto Moravia, Giorgio de Chirico, and others. Levi lived almost exclusively in Paris from 1932 to 1934 and even attended the funeral in 1933 of his uncle (his mother's brother),
From 1907 onwards Cesare Battisti, a left-wing intellectual inside the party from Trentino, emerged as prominent leader of Trieste's League. Battisti and Pittoni clashed on political issues, especially following the 1908 Bosnian crisis. The latter incident had created a dissonance between the goals of socialist internationalism and those of Austrian nationalism, but Pittoni played it down, arguing that many Bosniaks were already subjects of the Austrian monarchy, in Croatia-Slavonia. Overall, Pittoni claimed, "the right of ethnic self-determination hinges on that state's democratization prospects" (implying that Bosniaks lacked such prospects outside the Austrian tutelage). He also noted that, contrary to the indignation in Italy, Italians had nothing to fear. Against Pittoni, Battisti maintained an anti-militarist and separatist position. Pittoni also found himself criticised by PSI irredentists
, Leonida Bissolati and Gaetano Salvemini.
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