Synonyms for colics or Related words with colics
Examples of "colics"
It is useful in asthma, rheumatism and
of children. It may have the potential to be the basis for a birth control pill for men. Clinical tests are being conducted in Indonesia.
Horses thrive very well on common vetch, even better than on clover and rye grass; the same applies to fattening cattle, which feed faster on vetch than on most grasses or other edible plants. Danger often arises from livestock eating too much vetch, especially when podded;
and other stomach disorders are apt to be produced by the excessive amounts devoured.
Extracts from "Colchicum ritchii" are used in traditional medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, gout and abdominal
. Bedouin children dig up the corms from the desert to sell them after drying them to herbalists in Alexandria and other Egyptian cities. The anti-inflammatory drug colchicine was originally extracted from closely related species to this plant in ancient Egypt.
After the baby is born, it is kept in a dark, quiet room with its mother for several days. The baby is massaged from the first day onwards to recreate an environment similar to the womb. The massage occurs twice a day as it is believed to have healing effects on the baby and reduce typical infant complaints like
Gas colic, also known as tympanic colic, is the result of gas buildup within the horse's digestive tract due to excessive fermentation within the intestines or a decreased ability to move gas through it. It is usually the result of a change in diet, but can also occur due to low dietary roughage levels, parasites (22% of spasmodic
are associated with tapeworms), and anthelminthic administration. This gas buildup causes distention and increases pressure in the intestines, causing pain. Additionally, it usually causes an increase in peristaltic waves, which can lead to painful spasms of the intestine, producing subsequent spasmodic colic. The clinical signs of these forms of colic are generally mild, transient, and respond well to spasmolytic medications, such as buscopan, and analgesics. Gas
usually self-correct, but there is the risk of subsequent torsion (volvulus) or displacement of the bowel due to gas distention, which causes this affected piece of bowel to rise upward in the abdomen.
Colic may be managed medically or surgically. Severe clinical signs often suggest the need for surgery, especially if they can not be controlled with analgesics. Immediate surgical intervention may be required, but surgery can be counter-indicated in some cases of colic, so diagnostic tests are used to help discover the cause of the colic and guide the practitioner in determining the need for surgery (See Diagnosis). The majority of
(approximately 90%) can be successfully managed medically.
Surgery poses significant expense and risks, including peritonitis, the formation of adhesions, complications secondary to general anesthesia, injury upon recovery of the horse which may require euthanasia, dehiscence, or infection of the incisional site. Additionally, surgical cases may develop post-operative ileus which requires further medical management. However, surgery may be required to save the life of the horse, and 1–2% of all
require surgical intervention. If a section of intestine is significantly damaged, it may need to be removed (resection) and the healthy parts reattached together (anastomosis). Horses may have up to 80% of their intestines removed and still function normally, without needing a special diet.
Oil from the flowers was used against catarrhs,
and, in Germany, earaches, frostbite, eczema and other external conditions. Topical application of various "V. thapsus"-based preparations was recommended for the treatment of warts, boils, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, and chilblains, amongst others. Recent studies have found that great mullein contains glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide and potential anti-tumoral action. These compounds are concentrated in the flowers. The German Commission E sanctioned medicinal use of the plant for catarrhs. It was also part of the National Formulary in the United States and United Kingdom. The plant's leaves, in addition to the seeds, have been reported to contain rotenone, although quantities are unknown.
For over forty years Darwin suffered intermittently from various combinations of symptoms such as: malaise, vertigo, dizziness, muscle spasms and tremors, vomiting, cramps and
, bloating and nocturnal intestinal gas, headaches, alterations of vision, severe tiredness, nervous exhaustion, dyspnea, skin problems such as blisters all over the scalp and eczema, crying, anxiety, sensation of impending death and loss of consciousness, fainting, tachycardia, insomnia, tinnitus, and depression. These symptoms displayed by Darwin may have been diagnosed today as a form of dysautonomia known as hyperadrenergic postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome or orthostatic intolerance.
Ileus is the lack of motility of the intestines, leading to a functional obstruction. It often occurs postoperatively following any type of abdominal surgery, and 10–50% of all cases of surgical colic will develop this complication, including 88% of horses with a strangulating obstructions and 41% of all
with a large intestinal lesion. The exact cause is unknown, but is suspected to be due to inflammation of the intestine, possibly a result of manipulation by the surgeon, and increased sympathetic tone. It has a high fatality rate of 13–86%.
By that time, Hrisoverghi was showing the symptoms of an unknown disease, which first manifested itself as renal
. As doctors recommended exercise and fresh air, he left for the Ottoman Empire, visiting Rumelia on his way to Edirne. In Kogălniceanu's view: "The patriarchal life of the Bulgarians, their customs so unlike those of any other, more civilized and thus more commonplace, nations, the magnificent view of the Balkans still full of souvenirs from the Russian victories [in the war of 1828-1829], all that primitive nature left vivid imprints in his memory and awoke within him the poetic genius".
Adhesions, or scar tissue between various organs that are not normally attached within the abdomen, may occur whenever an abdominal surgery is performed. It is often seen secondary to reperfusion injury where there is ischemic bowel or after intestinal distention. This injury causes neutrophils to move into the serosa and mesothelium to be lost, which the body then attempts to repair using fibrin and collagen, leading to adhesion formation between adjacent tissues with either fibrinous or fibrous material. Adhesions may encourage a volvulus, as the attachment provides a pivot point, or force a tight turn between two adjacent loops that are now attached, leading to partial obstruction. For this reason, clinical signs vary from silent lesions to acute obstruction, encouraging future
including intestinal obstruction or strangulation, and requiring further surgery and risk of adhesion. Generally, adhesions form within the first two months following surgery. Adhesions occur most commonly in horses with small intestinal disease (22% of all surgical
), foals (17%), those requiring enterotomy or a resection and anastomosis, or those that develop septic peritonitis.
Diaphragmatic hernias are rare in horses, accounting for 0.3% of
. Usually the small intestine herniates through a rent in the diaphragm, although any part of the bowel may be involved. Hernias are most commonly acquired, not congenital, with 48% of horses having a history of recent trauma, usually through during parturition, distention of the abdomen, a fall, or strenuous exercise, or direct trauma to the chest. Congenital hernias occur most commonly in the most ventral part of the diaphragm, while acquired hernias are usually seen at the junction of the muscular and tendinous sections of the diaphragm. Clinical signs usually are similar to an obstruction, but occasionally decreased lung sounds may be heard in one section of the chest, although dyspnea is only seen in approximately 18% of horses. Ultrasound and radiography may both be used to diagnose diaphragmatic herniation.
In the case of
requiring surgery, survival rates are best improved by quick recognition of colic and immediate surgical referral, rather than waiting to see if the horse improves, which only increases the extent of intestinal compromise. Survival rates are higher in surgical cases that do not require resection and anastomosis. 90% of large intestinal colic surgeries that are not due to volvulus, and 20–80% of large colon volvuluses, are discharged; while 85–90% of non strangulating small intestinal lesions, and 65–75% of strangulating intestinal lesions are discharged. 10–20% of small intestinal surgical cases require a second surgery, while only 5% of large intestinal cases do so. Horses that survive colic surgery have a high rate of return to athletic function. According to one study, approximately 86% of horses discharged returned to work, and 83.5% returned to same or better performance.
Research on the medical emergencies that may occur in space include fatal and nonfatal arrhythmia, heart attacks, cardiac arrests, embolisms, massive hemorrhages, renal stone formations, fatal and non-fatal infections, and thrombotic complications. Of these conditions, only arrhythmia, renal
, and infections have occurred in the history of spaceflight. The arrhythmia cases included occasional premature atrial contractions (PACs) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), which happened to 30% of astronauts at some point during periods of intense physical activity. Potentially serious arrhythmia cases (superventricular tachycardia) have also been reported. For example, during the Apollo 15 flight, one crew member experienced ventricular bigeminy; ventricular ectopy was reported on Skylab; and on "Mir", a crew member experienced a 14-beat run of ventricular tachycardia.
Small colon impactions represent a small number of
in the horse, and are usually caused by obstruction from fecaliths, enteroliths, and meconium. Horses usually present with standard colic signs (pawing, flank watching, rolling) in 82% of horses, and occasionally with diarrhea (31%), anorexia (30%), straining (12%), and depression (11%), and rectal examination will reveal firm loops of small colon or actually palpable obstruction in the rectum. Impactions are most common in miniature horses, possibly because they do not masticate their feed as well, and during the fall and winter. Medical management includes the aggressive use of fluids, laxatives and lubricants, and enemas, as well as analgesics and anti-inflammatories. However, these impactions often require surgical intervention, and the surgeon will empty the colon either by enterotomy or by lubricants and massage. Surgical intervention usually results in longer recovery time at the hospital. Prognosis is very good, and horses treated with surgical treatment had a survival with return to athletic function rate of 91%, while 89% of the medically managed horses returned to previous use.
Enteroliths in horses are round 'stones' of mineral deposits, usually of ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite) but sometimes of magnesium vivainite and some amounts of sodium, potassium, sulfur and calcium, which develop within the horse's gastrointestinal tract. They can form around a piece of ingested foreign material, such as a small nidus of wire or sand (similar to how an oyster forms a pearl). When they move from their original site they can obstruct the intestine, usually in the right dorsal and transverse colon, but rarely in the small colon. They may also cause mucosal irritation or pain when they move within the gastrointestinal tract. Enteroliths are not a common cause of colic, but are known to have a higher prevalence in states with a sandy soil or an abundance of alfalfa hay is fed, such as California, a state where 28% of surgical
are due to enteroliths. Alfalfa hay is thought to increase the risk due the high protein content in the hay, which would likely elevate ammonia nitrogen levels within the intestine. They may be more common in horses with diets high in magnesium, and are also seen more often in Arabians, Morgans, American Saddlebreds, Miniature horses, and donkeys, and usually occur in horses older than four years of age. Horses with enteroliths typically have chronic, low-grade, recurring colic signs, which may lead to acute colic and distention of the large colon after occlusion of the lumen occurs. These horse may also have had a history of passing enteroliths in their manure. Level of pain is related to the degree of luminal occlusion. Abdominal radiographs can confirm the diagnosis, but smaller enteroliths may not be visible. In rare instances, enteroliths may be palpated on rectal examination, usually if they are present in the small colon. Once a horse is diagnosed with colic due to an enterolith, surgery is necessary to remove it, usually by pelvic flexure enterotomy and sometimes an additional right dorsal colon enterotomy, and fully resolve the signs of colic. Horses will usually present a round enterolith if it is the only one present, while multiple entheroliths will usually have flat sides, a clue to the surgeon to look for more stones. The main risk of surgery is rupture of the colon (15% of cases), and 92% of horses that are recovered survive to at least 1 year from their surgery date.
In Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, wolf flesh was a main ingredient in unguents used to ward off evil. When applied in the form of a powder, the wolf unguent would be used to cure epilepsy, plague and gout. Powdered wolf bones were used to cure chest and back pains, broken bones and strained tendons. Wolf teeth, particularly the canines, would be perforated and used as talismans against evil spirits. This practice is thought to fall back to the Paleolithic, as shown by some prehistoric grave sites showing numerous wolf tooth charms. It continues in some areas of rural France, where it is also thought that wearing a wolf tooth offers protection from wolf attacks. The tongue, when cooked with flour and honey, was traditionally used as a remedy for epilepsy and as a guarantee of good luck. The eyes of a wolf were traditionally thought to give courage to children and render the user partially invisible. The liver was particularly prized for medicinal and ritualistic purposes. When cooked or desiccated into a powder and mixed with certain ingredients (flour, wine, water, blood, urine etc.), wolf liver was said to cure epilepsy, edema, tachycardia, syphilis, gangrene, vertigo, migraines, verucas and dysentery. Wolf penis supposedly cured impotence. Wolf blood was used for gout, period pains and deafness. The paws and fat of a wolf were sometimes used to ward off evil, or facilitate the transformation of a werewolf. Wolf dung was used against
. The milk of a she-wolf made the drinker invulnerable, while eating the heart of a wolf gave the consumer courage in battle. A wolf's tail, while used for warding off evil, was also used as a love charm. The head of a wolf, if hung outside a house, would deter wolves, robbers and evil spirits. When reduced to powder, a wolf's head could be used against toothache and joint pains. In the cultures of certain Native American tribes, wolf body parts were considered important additions to certain rituals. Pawnee warriors, known as Wolf People, dressed in wolf skin cloaks when scouting or hunting. Nez Perce warriors wore wolf teeth pushed through the septums of their noses. Cheyenne medicine men wrapped wolf fur on sacred arrows used to motion prey into traps. Arikara men wove wolf fur with bison fur in order to make small sacred blankets. Nuxálk mothers painted wolf gall bladders on their young male children's backs, so they could grow up to perform religious ceremonies without making mistakes as hunters. Hidatsan women experiencing difficult births would call upon the familial power of wolves by rubbing wolf-skin caps on their bellies. In Mongolian folk medicine, eating the intestines of a wolf is said to alleviate chronic indigestion, while sprinkling food with powdered wolf rectum is said to cure haemorroids. There are not many traditional uses for Ethiopian wolves, though their livers may be used for medicinal reasons in northern Ethiopia.
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