Synonyms for contextualism or Related words with contextualism
Examples of "contextualism"
An alternative to
called contrastivism has been proposed by Jonathan Schaffer. Contrastivism, like
, uses semantic approaches to tackle the problem of skepticism.
Contextualists can, and do, adopt different analytic goals, and the many different varieties of
can be distinguished by their goals. Based on their overarching analytic goals, contextualistic theories can be divided into two general categories: "descriptive
" and "functional
The root metaphor of
is the "act in context", whereby any event is interpreted as an ongoing act inseparable from its current and historical context. The truth criterion of
is often dubbed "successful working", whereby the truth and meaning of an idea lies in its function or utility, not in how well it is said to mirror reality. In
, an analysis is said to be true or valid insofar it as it leads to effective action, or achievement of some goal.
is Pepper's term for the philosophical pragmatism developed by Charles Sanders Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and others.
was introduced, in part, in order to undermine skeptical arguments that have this basic structure:
: a new perspective for the history of ideas', History of Political Thought Seminar, Trinity College, Cambridge, 20.5.2003.
', in P. Kjærgaard ed., New Perspectives in the History of Ideas: Science, Philosophy and Political Theory (forthcoming).
However, contextualist epistemology has been criticized by several philosophers.
is opposed to any general form of "Invariantism", which claims that knowledge is not context-sensitive (i.e. it is invariant). More recent criticism has been in the form of rival theories, including "Subject-Sensitive Invariantism" (SSI), mainly due to the work of John Hawthorne (2004), and "Interest-Relative Invariantism" (IRI), due to Jason Stanley (2005). SSI claims that it is the context of the subject of the knowledge attribution that determines the epistemic standards, whereas
maintains it is the attributor. IRI, on the other hand, argues that it is the context of the practical interests of the subject of the knowledge attribution that determines the epistemic standards. Stanley writes that bare IRI is "simply the claim that whether or not someone knows that "p" may be determined in part by practical facts about the subject's environment." ("
" is a misnomer for either form of Invariantism, since "
" among epistemologists is considered to be restricted to a claim about the context-sensitivity of knowledge attributions (or the word "knows"). Thus, any view which maintains that something other than knowledge attributions are context-sensitive is not, strictly speaking, a form of
.) DeRose (2009) responds to recent attacks on
, and argues that
is superior to these recent rivals.
Relational frame theory focuses on how humans learn language (i.e., communication) through interactions with the environment and is based on a philosophical approach referred to as functional
The practice published two books of their work, "Challenging
" (2003) and "Curious Rationalism" (2006), and won multiple architectural awards and prizes.
, a trend in thinking in the later parts of 20th century, influences the ideologies of the postmodern movement in general.
is centered on the belief that all knowledge is "context-sensitive". This idea was even taken further to say that knowledge cannot be understood without considering its context. While noteworthy examples of modern architecture responded both subtly and directly to their physical context (analyzed by Thomas Schumacher in "
: Urban Ideals and Deformations," and by Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter in "Collage City"), postmodern architecture often addressed the context in terms of the materials, forms and details of the buildings around it—the cultural context.
In architectural theory,
is a theory of design wherein modern (not be confused with modernism) building types are harmonized with urban forms usual to a traditional city.
A notable recent development in Philosophy of Psychology is Functional
or Contextual Behavioural Science (CBS). Functional
is a modern philosophy of science rooted in philosophical pragmatism and
. It is most actively developed in behavioral science in general, the field of behavior analysis, and contextual behavioral science in particular (see the entry for the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science). Functional
serves as the basis of a theory of language known as relational frame theory and its most prominent application, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). It is an extension and contextualistic interpretation of B.F. Skinner's radical behaviorism first delineated by Steven C. Hayes which emphasizes the importance of predicting and influencing psychological events (including thoughts, feelings, and behaviors) with precision, scope, and depth, by focusing on manipulable variables in their context.
In 1984, Finlay established Mark P. Finlay Architects, AIA, seeking a greater level of
and comfort in his designs, particularly in residential projects.
What varies with context is how well-positioned a subject must be with respect to a proposition to count as "knowing" it.
in epistemology then is a semantic thesis about how 'knows' works in English, not a theory of what knowledge, justification, or strength of epistemic position consists in. However, epistemologists combine
with views about what knowledge is to address epistemological puzzles and issues, such as skepticism, the Gettier problem, and the Lottery paradox.
Recent work in the new field of experimental philosophy has taken an empirical approach to testing the claims of
and related views. This research has proceeded by conducting experiments in which ordinary non-philosophers are presented with vignettes which involve a knowledge ascription. Participants are then asked to report on the status of that knowledge ascription. The studies address
by varying the context of the knowledge ascription, e.g., how important it is that the agent in the vignette has accurate knowledge.
In the studies completed up to this point, no support for
has been found. This critique of
can be summed up as: stakes have no impact on evidence. More specifically, non-philosophical intuitions about knowledge attributions are not affected by the importance to the potential knower of the accuracy of that knowledge. Some may argue that these empirical studies for the most part have not been well designed for testing
, which claims that the context of the attributor of "knowledge" affects the epistemic standards that govern their claims. Because most of the empirical studies don't vary the stakes for the attributor, but for the subject being described, these studies are more relevant to the evaluation of John Hawthorne's "Subject-Sensitive Invariantism" or Jason Stanley's "Interest-Relative Invariantism"—views on which the stakes for the putative subject of knowledge can affect whether that subject knows—than they are of
. However, Feltz & Zarpentine (forthcoming) have tested the stakes for both the subject and the attributor, and the results are not in keeping with
. Experimental work continues to be done on this topic.
Cultural studies often concerns itself with agency at the level of the practices of everyday life, and approaches such research from a standpoint of radical
. In other words, cultural studies rejects universal accounts of cultural practices, meanings, and identities.
Jason Stanley has argued that Dretske's relevant alternative theory was the starting point for the development of
in epistemology, specifically with the subsequent work done by Alvin Goldman and Gail Stine.
is a modern philosophy of science rooted in philosophical pragmatism and
. It is most actively developed in behavioral science in general and the field of behavior analysis and contextual behavioral science in particular (see the entry for the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science). Functional
serves as the basis of a theory of language known as relational frame theory and its most prominent application, acceptance and commitment therapy. It is an extension and contextualistic interpretation of B.F. Skinner's radical behaviorism first delineated by Steven C. Hayes which emphasizes the importance of predicting and influencing psychological events (including thoughts, feelings, and behaviors) with precision, scope, and depth, by focusing on manipulable variables in their context.
Descriptive contextualists seek to understand the complexity and richness of a whole event through a personal and aesthetic appreciation of its participants and features. This approach reveals a strong adherence to the root metaphor of
and can be likened to the enterprise of history, in which stories of the past are constructed in an attempt to understand whole events. The knowledge constructed by the descriptive contextualist is personal, ephemeral, specific, and spatiotemporally restricted. Like a historical narrative, it is knowledge that reflects an in-depth personal understanding of a particular event that occurred (or is occurring) at a particular time and place. Most forms of
, including social constructionism, dramaturgy, hermeneutics, and narrative approaches, are instances of descriptive
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