Synonyms for cripto or Related words with cripto
Examples of "cripto"
POU5F1, TDGF1 (
), SALL4, LECT1, and BUB1 are also related genes all responsible for self-renewal and pluripotent differentiation.
Cripto’s functions have been hypothesized from these null mutation studies. It is now known that
is similar to other morphogens originating from the primitive streak in that it is asymmetrically expressed, specifically in a proximal-distal gradient, explaining the failure of posterior structures to form in the absence of
The CFC domain appears to play a crucial role in the tumourigenic activity of
proteins, as it is through the CFC domain that
interferes with the onco-suppressive activity of Activins, either by blocking the Activin receptor ALK4 or by antagonising proteins of the TGF-beta family.
High concentrations of
are found in both the trophoblast and inner cell mass, along the primitive streak as the second epithelial-mesenchymal transformation event occurs to form the mesoderm, and in the myocardium of the developing heart. Though no specific defect has been formally associated with mutations in
, in vitro studies that disrupt gene function at various times during development have provided glimpses of possible malformations. For example, inactivation of
during gastrulation disrupted the migration of newly formed mesenchymal mesoderm cells, resulting in the accumulation of cells around the primitive streak and eventual embryonic death. Other results of
disruption include the lack of posterior structures. and a block on the differentiation of cardiac myocyte. both of which lead to embryonic death.
"CFC1B" has oncogene potential due to the tumor cell proliferation through initiation by autocrine or paracrine signaling. Furthermore, the cryptic protein is highly over-expressed in many tumors such as colorectal, gastric, breast, and pancreatic cancers in homosapiens.
is one of the key regulators of embryonic stem cells differentiation into cardiomyocyte vs. neuronal fate. Expression levels of
are associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitors.
David S. Salomon, Ph.D. (born 1947) is a cancer research scientist and co-discoverer of the
-1 gene. His areas of research include stem cells, cell signaling, breast cancer, mammary gland development, small molecule inhibitors, and embryonic development.
is an EGF-CFC or epidermal growth factor-CFC, which is encoded by the Cryptic family 1 gene. Cryptic family protein 1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the "CFC1B" gene. Cryptic family protein 1B acts as a receptor for the TGF beta signaling pathway. It has been associated with the translation of an extracellular protein for this pathway. The extracellular protein which
encodes plays a crucial role in the development of left and right division of symmetry. Mutations of it could cause congenital heart disease.
ACVR1B or ALK-4 acts as a transducer of activin or activin like ligands (e.g., inhibin) signals. Activin binds to either ACVR2A or ACVR2B and then forms a complex with ACVR1B. These go on to recruit the R-SMADs SMAD2 or SMAD3. ACVR1B also transduces signals of nodal, GDF-1, and Vg1; however, unlike activin, they require other coreceptor molecules such as the protein
Nodal can bind type I and type II Serine/Threonine kinase receptors, with
-1 acting as its co-receptor. Signaling through SMAD 2/3 and subsequent translocation of SMAD 4 to the nucleus promotes the expression of genes involved in proliferation and differentiation. Nodal also further activates its own expression via a positive feedback loop. It is tightly regulated by inhibitors Lefty A, Lefty B, Cerberus, and Tomoregulin-1, which can interfere with Nodal receptor binding.
In molecular biology, the CFC domain (Cripto_Frl-1_Cryptic domain) is a protein domain found at the C-terminus of a number of proteins including
(or teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor). It is structurally similar to the C-terminal extracellular portions of Jagged 1 and Jagged 2. CFC is approx 40-residues long, compacted by three internal disulphide bridges, and binds Alk4 via a hydrophobic patch. CFC is structurally homologous to the VWFC-like domain.
is composed of two adjacent cysteine-rich motifs: the EGF-like and the CFC of an N-terminal signal peptide and of a C-terminal hydrophobic region attached by a GPI anchor, which makes it a potentially essential element in the signaling pathway directing vertebrate embryo development. NMR data confirm that the CFC domain has a C1-C4, C2-C6, C3-C5 disulfide pattern and show that structures are rather flexible and globally extended, with three non-canonical anti-parallel strands.
In the Nodal signaling pathway of embryonic development,
has been shown to have dual function as a co-receptor as well as ligand. Particularly in cell cultures, it has been shown to act as a signaling molecule with the capabilities of a growth factor, and in co-culture assays, it has displayed the property of a co-ligand to Nodal. Glycosylation is responsible for mediating this interface with Nodal. EGF-CFC proteins’ composition as a receptor complex is further solidified by the GPI linkage, making the cell membrane connection able to regulate growth factor signaling of Nodal.
He followed a journalism career which saw him working in several parts of the country for organizations like the Nigerian Chronicle, The Punch, Newbreed magazine and The Call. Edidem Bassey was also for a time vice-president of the Nigerian Union of Journalists, and National Publicity director in the now defunct Nigerian Peoples Party. A socialist, in February 1989 he was head of the Directorate for Literacy and at about the same period he moved from
-politics to actual participation when he contested and won the elections for chairmanship of calabar Municipal council.
Nodal mRNA produces an immature protein form of nodal that is cleaved by proteins called convertases in order to generate a mature nodal. The subtilisin-like proprotein convertases (SPC) Furin (Spc1) and PACE4 (Spc4) recognize a specific sequence of the precursor of nodal protein and cleaves it to form the mature nodal ligand. Conversely, the immature form of Nodal is still capable to activate the pathway. During nodal transportation to the extracellular space, the nodal co-receptor captures the nodal precursor in lipid rafts and once in the cell surface,
interacts with the convertases and forms a complex that facilitates the processing of nodal.
Stefan Karlsson is recognized as an important contributor to the field of gene therapy. His early research focused on retroviral vector based gene correction of hematopoietic cells from monogenetic disorders, such as Gaucher’s disease and hemoglobinopathies. The results of these studies led to the first gene therapy clinical trial for the treatment of Gaucher’s disease (1995). He has also developed lentiviral vectors for gene correction of hematopoietic stem cells, and more recently developed preclinical gene therapy models for Gaucher’s disease and Diamond Blackfan anemia. An equal component of his research has been in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology, where Dr. Karlsson focused on studying the mechanisms of hematopoietic stem cell expansion and maintenance with major contributions to understanding the role of Tgf-beta and more recently
Born into an aristocratic family in Saint Petersburg, graduated from the Page Corps and served in the Sofia Regiment. Soon after he entered the Moscow Theological Academy, while studying read all the available writings of the Fathers of the Church in Russian and " Summa Theologica, " Aquinas in Latin. On one of the social events met the philosopher Vladimir Solovyov and the
-catholic Elizabeth Volkonskaya. Tolstoy was impressed by the penetration of Protestant views in the teaching of Orthodox theology. In 1890, ordained an Orthodox priest in the following year taking a trip to the Middle East to become familiar with the traditions and customs of the Middle Eastern Christians. After the return of the French abbot Vivian of Saint Louis Church in Moscow he introduced Tolstoy to Dominican Vincenzo Vannutelli, who after talking with Tolstoy told him that with his views, he can consider himself a Catholic, while staying in the home of the Russian Orthodox Church.
EGF-CFC proteins are membrane bound extracellular factors that serve as essential cofactor in Nodal signaling and in vertebrate development as a whole. This family of cofactors includes One-eyed Pinhead (oep) in Zebrafish, FRL1 in "Xenopus", and
and Criptic in mouse and human. Genetic studies of oep in zebrafish have shown that the knockout of both maternal and zygotic "oep" leads to a phenotype similar to that of the squint/Cyclops (nodals) knockout. Similarly, over-expression of either the nodal (squint/Cyclops) or "oep" with the knockout of the other does not show phenotypical differences. This evidence coupled with the data that overexpression of "oep" shows no phenotype corroborates the role of EGF-CFC as an essential cofactor in Nodal signaling.
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