Synonyms for crljenak or Related words with crljenak
Examples of "crljenak"
This discovery narrowed down the search to the central Dalmatian coastal strip and its offshore islands. Eventually a matching DNA fingerprint was found among the samples. The match came from a vine sampled in 2001 in the vineyard of Ivica Radunić in Kaštel Novi. This
Kaštelanski ("Kaštela Red") appears to represent Primitivo/Zinfandel in its original home, although some genetic divergence may have occurred since their separation. Meredith now refers to the variety as "ZPC" – Zinfandel / Primitivo /
Historically, it was prone to mold, while
was prone to be overly heat sensitive, thus the cross of Plavac Mali resulted in a grape that had neither of these negative attributes and was perfect for the region.
Kaštelanski, Gioia Del Colle, Locale, Morellone, Plavac Veliki, Primaticcio, Primativo, Primitivo, Primitivo Di Gioia, Primitivo Nero, Uva Della Pergola, Uva Di Corato, Zin (informal), ZPC, Black St. Peters, Zenfendal, Zinfardel, Zinfindal, Taranto, Zeinfandall, Zinfardell, Zinfindel, Zinfandal.
It is one parent of the Plavac Mali red wine grape variety; the other one is Zinfandel, a grape variety also known as
Kaštelanski in Croatia, from where it originates.
The Croatian form
Kaštelanski was not bottled in Croatia as a varietal in its own right before the link to Zinfandel was revealed. UCD has since sent clones of both Zinfandel and Primitivo to Professor Maletić in Croatia, which he planted on the island of Hvar. He made his first ZPC wines in Croatia in 2005. There is high demand for red grapes in the country, and the government has been supportive of ongoing research. Figures from the department of viticulture and enology at the University of Zagreb claim that from only 22 vines of
Kaštelanski in Croatia in 2001, there were about 2,000 vines in 2008.
Carole Meredith at the University of California, Davis pioneered the use of genetic fingerprinting for vine identification. Famous successes with the technique include proving the identity of Zinfandel, Primitivo, and
Kaštelanski, and identifying the parents of Sangiovese as Ciliegiolo and Calabrese Montenuovo. Such exercises are giving valuable insight into historical patterns of trade and migration.
Plavac Mali (), a cross between
Kaštelanski (ancestral Zinfandel) and Dobričić grapes, is the primary red wine grape grown along the Dalmatian coast of Croatia. The name refers to the small blue grapes that the vines produce: in Croatian "plavo" means blue; "mali" means small.
The well-known Napa Valley winemaker Miljenko "Mike" Grgich is a Croatian native, and he has argued the case for Zinfandel being descended from the Plavac Mali grape. DNA testing has now demonstrated that Plavac Mali is in fact a child of the true original Zinfandel, which is a little-planted grape from the same area named
An additional aspect of the "Zinfandel Heritage Vineyard Project" was to conduct DNA analysis of Zinfandel in an effort to find the origins of the grape. Dr. Carole Meredith at UC Davis worked with the help of ZAP to determine that Zinfandel was genetically identical to an obscure Croatian grape known as “
In the 1980s, Plavac Mali was incorrectly thought to be an ancestor of Zinfandel. In 1998, while researching the origins of Zinfandel through DNA fingerprinting, Dr. Carole Meredith at UC Davis with the urging from Mike Grgich (a well-known winemaker in Napa Valley originally from Croatia) and researchers from the University of Zagreb discovered that Zinfandel is actually one parent of Plavac Mali. The other parent is an ancient variety known as Dobričić from the island of Šolta which, much like
Kaštelanski is not commonly found on its own.<
Archaeological evidence indicates that domestication of "Vitis vinifera" occurred in the Caucasus region around 6000 BCE, and winemaking was discovered shortly after that. Cultivation of the vine subsequently spread to the Mediterranean and surrounding regions. Croatia once had several indigenous varieties related to Zinfandel, which formed the basis of its wine industry in the 19th century. This diversity suggests that the grapes have been grown in Croatia longer than anywhere else. However, these varieties were almost entirely wiped out by the phylloxera epidemic of the late 19th century, eventually reducing Zinfandel to just nine vines of locally-known "
Kaštelanski" discovered in 2001 on the Dalmatian coast of Croatia.
Zinfandel (also known as Primitivo) is a variety of black-skinned wine grape. The variety is grown in over 10 percent of California vineyards. DNA analysis has revealed that it is genetically equivalent to the Croatian grapes
Kaštelanski and Tribidrag, as well as to the Primitivo variety traditionally grown in Apulia (the "heel" of Italy), where it was introduced in the 18th century. The grape found its way to the United States in the mid-19th century, where it became known by variations of the name "Zinfandel", a name which is probably of Austrian origin.
This Croatian vineyard contained just nine
Kaštelanski vines mixed with thousands of other vines. In 2002, additional vines known locally as Pribidrag were found in the Dalmatian coastal town of Omiš. Both clones are being propagated in California under the aegis of Ridge Vineyards, although virus infections have delayed their release. The first Croatian ZPC wine was made by Edi Maletić in 2005. Meanwhile, plantings of Primitivo have increased in California, where it seems to grow somewhat less vigorously than its sibling. Its wines are reputed to have more blackberry and spice flavors.
Before she retired in 2003, Meredith and her research group pioneered the use of DNA typing to differentiate "Vitis vinifera" grape varieties and for elucidating their parentage, which gives insight into the varieties' history and place of origin. In 1996, Meredith and her research established the parentage of Cabernet Sauvignon, which was the first application of such techniques. Later, Chardonnay, Syrah, and Zinfandel followed. The research group showed that the varieties Zinfandel, Primitivo, and
Kaštelanski are identical. The varieties Charbono and Corbeau were also found to be identical.
Along with research assistant and Master of wine Julia Harding, Robinson and Vouillamoz go on to detail the long history of discovering the parentage of the American wine variety Zinfandel including past research that pointed to a connection between the Italian variety Primitivo and the Croatian wine grape
Kaštelanski. After years of research and DNA testing of vines from vineyards across the globe, a single 90-year-old grape vine from the garden of an elderly lady in Split, Croatia provided the evidence to show that Zinfandel was originally a Croatian grape known as "Tribidrag" that had been cultivated in Croatia since the 15th century.
One interesting consequence of Prohibition was that vineyards were replanted with lower quality grapes such as Alicante Bouschet that could survive transportation to home winemakers, and this tradition of home winemaking changed taste preferences from a dry style before Prohibition to a much sweeter style. In general Prohibition had a devastating effect on commercial winemaking in the country, which only started to recover in the late 1960s and 1970s under major industry pioneers such as Ernest and Julio Gallo, Robert Mondavi and the world-class viticultural scientists at the University of California, Davis. The latter institution has played a leading role in the recovery of wine in the United States, in particular identifying just what vines were actually planted (notably California's signature grape, the robust red Zinfandel, which was found to be Croatia's
Kaštelanski), and encouraging the use of better clones of the traditional European varieties. In the 1970s, geographical appellations were designated as American Viticultural Areas.
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