Synonyms for deacidification or Related words with deacidification
Examples of "deacidification"
There are several commercial
techniques currently on the market.
washes are usually a viable option for most repositories as books can be sent in bulk; however, only books of excellent physical quality may be sent. The wash process is rather aggressive and any deformities in a book may cause damage to already brittle specimens. Therefore, libraries would have to first repair those books in less than desirable condition - specifically elements of the binding, leaf attachments, and text attachments - before
. These extra conservation efforts would increase the costs of
In 2001 the Archives embarked on an ambitious programme of mass
These are the results that the Library of Congress expected of an ideal mass
treatment in 1994.
While there is a
method that can successfully lower the acidity in brittle books, many public libraries do not have the funding to implement standard programs to halt the deterioration taking place in these institutions. Some repositories have the resources to send books for a
wash in stages.
In addition, by February 2011, about 80% of the library had been rebound, with and without conservation work such as
Conservators from the British Library acknowledge that the existing mass
processes are still developing and further research needs to be conducted on their chemical and mechanical effects.
Solutions to this problem include the use of acid-free paper stocks, reformatting brittle books by microfilming, photocopying or digitization, and a variety of
William James Barrow (December 11, 1904 – August 25, 1967) was an American chemist and paper conservator, and a pioneer of . He introduced the field of conservation to paper
Perfluoroheptane, CF, (usually referring to the straight chain molecule called "n"-perfluoroheptane) is a perfluorocarbon. It is hydrophobic (water-insoluble) and oleophobic (oil-insoluble). It is used in
of paper as a medium carrying powdered magnesium oxide
has been adopted by major research libraries such as the Library of Congress and the New York Public Library, it is not clear that many archives, particularly those in the United States, have followed suit. Whereas some European national archives have tested
techniques, the United States’ National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), which pioneered an aqueous technique that improved upon Barrow’s, has chosen to invest its preservation dollars elsewhere. In 2000, the Chief of the NARA Document Conservation Laboratory defended the lack of a mass
program by pointing to differences between library and archival collections, for example noting that many of the papers coming to NARA were of a higher quality than those in library collections; that the Archives does not receive records from federal government agencies until they are at least 30 years old, by which time acidic paper will have already been
Though now dated, several sources estimate the costs and suitability of
treatment. Studies conducted by the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center and the General State Archive of the Netherlands found the DEZ method, properly used, might be particularly applicable to archival materials. It was estimated that
costs, excluding transportation and handling, during the early 1990s was $5–10 per volume. During 1995-1997, the Library of Congress received $2 million in appropriations to deacidify 72,000 books using the Bookkeeper commercial method and evaluate alternative methods. The actual cost per book was $11.70. Finally, a recent cost comparison with reformatting options per volume yielded $125 for microfilming, $50 for scanning and minimal indexing, and, based on a New York Public Library project, $16.20 for
is a term used in Library and Information Science for one possible measure against the degradation of paper in old books (the so-called "slow fires"). The goal of the process is to increase the pH of acidic paper on a large scale. Although acid-free paper has become more common, a large body of acidic paper still exists in books made after the 1850s because of its cheaper and simpler production methods. Acidic paper, especially when exposed to light, air pollution, or high relative humidity, yellows and becomes brittle over time. During mass
an alkaline agent is deposited in the paper to neutralize existing acid and prevent further decay.
The study of archives includes the training of archivists, librarians specially trained to maintain and build archives of records intended for historical preservation. Special issues include physical preservation, conservation and restoration of materials and mass
; specialist catalogs; solo work; access; and appraisal. Many archivists are also trained historians specializing in the period covered by the archive.
Other targets of Baker's ire include the highly regarded Brittle Books Program, the United States Newspaper Program, the mass
policy practiced by the Library of Congress, and the 1987 film "Slow Fires: On the Preservation of the Human Record". (He calls the film "the most successful piece of library propaganda ever created." p. 184).
Pulp paper, however, contains acid which eventually destroys the paper from within. Earlier techniques for making paper used limestone rollers, which neutralized the acid in the pulp. Books printed between 1850 and 1950 are primarily at risk; more recent books are often printed on acid-free or alkaline paper. Libraries today have to consider mass
of their older collections in order to prevent decay.
These plants follow the same nocturnal acid accumulation and daytime
as terrestrial CAM species. However, the reason for CAM in aquatic plants is not due to a lack of available water, but a limited supply of . is limited due to slow diffusion in water, 10000x slower than in air. The problem is especially acute under acid pH, where the only inorganic carbon species present is , with no available bicarbonate or carbonate supply.
Helen Diana Burgess (28 July 1951 – 24 August 1999), was a Canadian conservation scientist. Burgess spent her career at the Canadian Conservation Institute ("CCI"), where she was a Senior Conservation Scientist. She was an eminent researcher in paper and textiles conservation processes and a leading expert in the areas of cellulose degradation analysis, conservation bleaching, washing, enzyme applications on paper, as well as aqueous and mass
Many experts in the field of conservation, such as Peter Waters, utilised their knowledge in restoring the works of art and literature ravaged by the flood. Staff from the Central Institute of Restoration and Institute of Book Pathology, for example, volunteered their time, efforts, and expertise in this enormous undertaking. New concepts, such as "phased conservation," and methods in conservation, such as mass
, were conceived during this period after the flood ravaged the city of Florence.
In the beginning half of the 20th century it became apparent that the use of acidic wood-pulp paper, common since the 1850s, was causing paper materials to slowly burn. This has been referred to as the slow fire. A statement submitted to the House of Representatives estimated that there were 80 million brittle books in North American libraries, 12 million of which were unique titles. As mass
efforts proved costly and inconsistent, librarians and archivists began looking for more practical ways to preserve the intellectual content of the decaying material. Microfilm, one of the most stable and durable mediums around at the time, was decided to be the most reasonable alternative.
Copyright © 2017