Synonyms for dysexecutive or Related words with dysexecutive
Examples of "dysexecutive"
The Behavioural Assessment of the
Syndrome (BADS) was designed to address the problems of traditional tests and evaluate the everyday problems arising from DES. BADS is designed around six subtests and ends with the
Questionnaire (DEX). These tests assess executive functioning in more complex, real-life situations, which improves their ability to predict day-to-day difficulties of DES.
Other explanations include reduced emotional experience, impaired emotional communication, alexithymia, behavioral abnormalities,
syndrome, and the Frontal lobes.
Shallice has also part authored neuropsychological tests including the Hayling and Brixton tests and the Behavioural Assessment of the
Executive dysfunction is not the same as
syndrome, a term coined by Alan Baddeley to describe a common pattern of dysfunction in executive functions, such as deficiencies in planning, abstract thinking, flexibility and behavioural control. This group of symptoms, usually resulting from brain damage, tend to occur together. However, the existence of
syndrome is controversial.
The negative symptoms of schizophrenia have previously been considered to be related to a psychiatric form of the
Syndrome (also known as frontal lobe syndrome). Studies show that the symptoms of schizophrenia do indeed correlate with frontal lobe syndrome.
The executive system's broad range of functions relies on, and is instrumental in, a broad range of neurocognitive processes. Clinical presentation of severe executive dysfunction that is unrelated a specific disease or disorder is classified as a
syndrome, and often appears following damage to the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex. As a result, Executive dysfunction is implicated etiologically and/or co-morbidly in many psychiatric illnesses, which often show the same symptoms as the
syndrome. It has been assessed and researched extensively in relation to cognitive developmental disorders, psychotic disorders, affective disorders, and conduct disorders, as well as neurodegenerative diseases and acquired brain injury (ABI).
The signs and symptoms of frontal lobe disorder can be indicated by
syndrome which consists of a number of symptoms which tend to occur together. Broadly speaking, these symptoms fall into three main categories; cognitive (movement and speech), emotional or behavioural. Although many of these symptoms regularly co-occur, it is common to encounter patients who have several, but not all of these symptoms. This is one reason why some researchers are beginning to argue that
syndrome is not the best term to describe these various symptoms. The fact that many of the
syndrome symptoms can occur alone has led some researchers to suggest that the symptoms should not be labelled as a "syndrome" as such. Some of the latest imaging research on frontal cortex areas suggests that executive functions may be more discrete than was previously thought.
Of note, occlusive damage to the medial striate artery may also present with contralateral grip reflex issues, and symptoms of
Syndrome. Contralateral gaze preference with or without transcortical motor aphasia may present in instances where the "left" hemisphere is affected in this type of occlusion.
Environmental dependency syndrome is a
syndrome marked by significant behavioural dependence on environmental cues and is marked by excessive imitation and utilization behaviour. It has been observed in patients with a variety of etiologies including ABI, exposure to phendimetrazine tartrate, stroke, and various frontal lobe lesions.
Phineas Gage, who suffered a severe frontal lobe injury in 1848, has been called a case of
syndrome. It should be noted however that Gage's psychological changes are overstated-, of the symptoms listed, the only ones Gage can be said to have exhibited are "anger and frustration", slight memory impairment, and "difficulty in planning".
The use of auditory stimuli has been examined in the treatment of
syndrome. The presentation of auditory stimuli causes an interruption in current activity, which appears to aid in preventing "goal neglect" by increasing the patients' ability to monitor time and focus on goals. Given such stimuli, subjects no longer performed below their age group average IQ.
The most frequent cause of the syndrome is brain damage to the frontal lobe. Brain damage leading to the
pattern of symptoms can result from physical trauma such as a blow to the head or a stroke or other internal trauma.
syndrome (DES) consists of a group of symptoms, usually resulting from brain damage, that fall into cognitive, behavioural and emotional categories and tend to occur together. The term was introduced by Alan Baddeley to describe a common pattern of dysfunction in executive functions, such as planning, abstract thinking, flexibility and behavioural control. It is thought to be Baddeley's hypothesized working memory system and the central executive that are the hypothetical systems impaired in DES. The syndrome was once known as frontal lobe syndrome, however
syndrome is preferred because it emphasizes the functional pattern of deficits (the symptoms) over the location of the syndrome in the frontal lobe, which is often not the only area affected.
Theories of the executive system were largely driven by observations of patients having suffered frontal lobe damage. They exhibited disorganized actions and strategies for everyday tasks (a group of behaviors now known as
syndrome) although they seemed to perform normally when clinical or lab-based tests were used to assess more fundamental cognitive functions such as memory, learning, language, and reasoning. It was hypothesized that, to explain this unusual behaviour, there must be an overarching system that co-ordinates other cognitive resources.
The vagueness of some aspects of the syndrome has led researchers to test for it in a non-clinical sample. The results show that some
behaviours are part of everyday life, and the symptoms exist to varying degrees in everyone. For example, absent-mindedness and lapses in attention are common everyday occurrences for most people. However, for the majority of the population such inattentiveness is manageable, whereas patients with DES experience it to such a degree that daily tasks become difficult.
Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and chronic pain share symptoms resembling those of PCS. One study found that while people with chronic pain without TBI do report many symptoms similar to those of post-concussion syndrome, they report fewer symptoms related to memory, slowed thinking, and sensitivity to noise and light than people with mTBI do. Additionally, it has been found that neuroendocrinology may account for depressive symptoms and stress management due to irregularities in cortisol regulation, and thyroid hormone regulation. Lastly, there is evidence that major depression following TBI is quite common, but may be better accounted for with a diagnosis of
DES often occurs with other disorders, which is known as comorbidity. Many studies have examined the presence of DES in patients with schizophrenia. Results of schizophrenic patients on the "Behavioural Assessment of the
Syndrome (BADS)" test (discussed below) are comparable to brain injured patients. Further, results of BADS have been shown to correlate with phases of schizophrenia. Patients in the chronic phase of the disorder have significantly lower scores than those who are acute. This is logical due to the similarities in executive disruptions that make everyday life difficult for those with schizophrenia and symptoms that form DES.
The cause of executive dysfunction is heterogeneous, as many neurocognitive processes are involved in the executive system and each may be compromised by a range of genetic and environmental factors. Learning and development of long-term memory play a role in the severity of executive dysfunction through dynamic interaction with neurological characteristics. Studies in cognitive neuroscience suggest that executive functions are widely distributed throughout the brain, though a few areas have been isolated as primary contributors. Executive dysfunction is studied extensively in clinical neuropsychology as well, allowing correlations to be drawn between such
symptoms and their neurological correlates.
Executive dysfunction characterizes many of the symptoms observed in numerous clinical populations. In the case of acquired brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases there is a clear neurological etiology producing
symptoms. Conversely, syndromes and disorders are defined and diagnosed based on their symptomatology rather than etiology. Thus, while Parkinson’s disease, a neurodegenerative condition, causes executive dysfunction, a disorder such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a classification given to a set of subjectively-determined symptoms implicating executive dysfunction – current models indicate that such clinical symptoms are caused by executive dysfunction.
Questionnaire (DEX) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to sample emotional, motivational, behavioural and cognitive changes in a subject with DES. One version is designed for the subject to complete and another version is designed for someone who is close to the individual, such as a relative or caregiver. Instructions are given to the participant to read 20 statements describing common problems of everyday life and to rate them according to their personal experience. Each item is scored on a 5-point scale according to its frequency from "never" (0 point) to "very often" (4 points).
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