Synonyms for ecotax or Related words with ecotax
Examples of "ecotax"
The polluter pays principle underpins environmental policy such as an
, which, if enacted by government, deters and essentially reduces greenhouse gas emissions.
(short for ecological taxation) is a tax levied on activities which are considered to be harmful to the environment and is intended to promote environmentally friendly activities via economic incentives. Such a policy can complement or avert the need for regulatory (command and control) approaches. Often, an
policy proposal may attempt to maintain overall tax revenue by proportionately reducing other taxes (e.g. taxes on human labor and renewable resources); such proposals are known as a green tax shift towards ecological taxation. Ecotaxes address the failure of free markets to consider environmental impacts.
1994 On behalf of Greenpeace, the German Institute for Economic Research analyses the economic consequences of an ecological fiscal reform. The model of
, short for ecological taxation, has been enacted in Germany by means of three laws in the following years.
In June 2008, Dion unveiled the new policy called "The Green Shift" ("le Tournant vert") and explained that this tax shift would create an
on carbon while reducing personal and corporate income taxes. He stated that the taxation on carbon would generate up to $15 billion per year in revenues to offset the reduction in income tax revenue.
The Liberal Party of Canada under Stéphane Dion placed the environment at the front of its political agenda, proposing an
and tax shift it called the Green Shift. Similarly, the Liberal Democrats (UK) have drawn on the same concept to propose a "Green Tax Switch".
Despite this stereotype, some centrist Greens may subscribe to a more classical liberal Georgist or geolibertarian philosophy emphasizing individual property rights and free-market environmentalismand shifting taxes away from value created by labor or service and charging instead for human consumption of the wealth created by the natural world (see "land value tax" and "
However, conventional regulatory approaches can affect prices in much the same way, while lacking the revenue-recycling potential of ecotaxes. Moreover, correctly assessing distributive impact of any tax shift requires an analysis of the specific instrument design features. For example, tax revenue could be redistributed on a per capita basis as part of a basic income scheme; in this case, the poorest would gain what the average citizen pays as ecotaxes, minus their own small contribution (no car, small apartment, ...). This design would be highly progressive. Alternatively, an
can have a "lifeline" design, in which modest consumption levels are priced relatively low (even zero, in the case of water), and higher consumption levels are priced at a higher rate. Furthermore, an
policy package can include revenue recycling to reduce or eliminate any regressivity; an increase in an
could be more than offset by a decrease in a (regressive) payroll or consumption tax. Some proponents claim a second benefit of increased employment or lower health care costs as the market and society adjust to the new fiscal policy (these claims, as with the claim "tax cuts create jobs," are often difficult to prove or disprove even after the fact).
The regional government of Balearic Islands (then held by an ecosocialist coalition) established an
in 1999. The Balearic Island suffer a high human pressure from tourism, that at the same time provides the main source of income. The tax (€1.00 per person per day) would be paid by visitors staying at tourist resorts. This was criticized by the conservative opposition as contrary to business interests, and they abolished the tax in 2003 after seizing back the government.
has been enacted in Germany by means of three laws in 1998, 1999 and 2002. The first introduced a tax on electricity and petroleum, at variable rates based on environmental considerations; renewable sources of electricity were not taxed. The second adjusted the taxes to favor efficient conventional power plants. The third increased the tax on petroleum. At the same time, income taxes were reduced proportionally so that the total tax burden remained constant.
Together with the Green Party of Switzerland, the Social Democrats have common environmentalist policies, which are reflected in the expansion of
reforms and increased state support for energy saving measures and renewable energies. The SP is against the construction of new roads where possible and instead proposes to shift the transportation of goods from the roads to the railways and the introduction of a cap and trade and traffic management system when it comes to transportation across the Swiss Alps. Furthermore, the SP stands for an expansion of the public transportation system network and opposes nuclear energy.
The party won two additional seats in the 1985 elections, two additional seats in 1987 and one in 1991: in that year it won seven seats in parliament. Agalev had become a serious political partner for other parties. In 1992 Agalev was asked to support a constitutional change called the Sint-Michiels accords, which would make Belgium a federation. Agalev gave its support in exchange of a tax on bottles, the first
in Belgium. In the 1995 the party campaigned on a clean hands theme, after a series of political scandals was revealed. The party however lost two seats.
When the politicians propose using market mechanisms to limit carbon emissions, it is clear that they cannot see a more democratic or sane way out of the climate crisis. International policies like carbon "cap and trade" that allow companies to buy the "rights" to pollute, or an
that end up punishing the poor, are all measures that will not work in the long term to save the planet – instead giving the rich and powerful nations and individuals the right to continue to pollute legally.
The Green Fiscal Commission (GFC) is a British body set up to examine the best way of implementing green taxes (also known as
) in the United Kingdom. GFC includes members from business, academia and the three main British political parties. GFC is chaired by Robert Napier, chairman of the Met Office and former chief executive of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). GFC's director is Paul Ekins, Professor of Energy and Environment Policy at King's College London. The secretariat for the Commission is provided by the Policy Studies Institute.
The Pigou Club is described by its creator, economist and blogger N. Gregory Mankiw, as "an elite group of economists and pundits with the good sense to have publicly advocated higher Pigovian taxes, such as gasoline taxes or carbon taxes." These pundits and economists often advocate lowering other taxes to keep the total amount of taxes collected the same, though many have also proposed dedicating the revenue to other worthwhile projects. A Pigovian tax (also spelled Pigouvian tax, named after economist Arthur Cecil Pigou) is a tax levied to correct the negative externalities (negative side-effects) of a market activity. These ideas are also known as an
(or green tax shift).
A fuel tax (also known as a petrol, gasoline or gas tax, or as a fuel duty) is an excise tax imposed on the sale of fuel. In most countries the fuel tax is imposed on fuels which are intended for transportation. Fuels used to power agricultural vehicles, and/or home heating oil which is similar to diesel are taxed at a different, usually lower rate. The fuel tax receipts are often dedicated or hypothecated to transportation projects so that the fuel tax is considered by many a user fee. In other countries, the fuel tax is a source of general revenue. Sometimes, the fuel tax is used as an
, to promote ecological sustainability. Fuel taxes are often considered regressive taxes.
Fred Foldvary stated that the tax encourages landowners to develop vacant/underused land or to sell it. He claimed that because LVT deters speculative land holding, dilapidated inner city areas return to productive use, reducing the pressure to build on undeveloped sites and so reducing urban sprawl. For example, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania in the United States has taxed land at a rate six times that on improvements since 1975. This policy was credited by mayor Stephen R. Reed with reducing the number of vacant structures in downtown Harrisburg from around 4,200 in 1982 to fewer than 500. LVT is arguably an
because it discourages the waste of prime locations, which are a finite natural resource.
Premier Frank Hsieh appointed Chang Kow-lung head of the Environmental Protection Administration on 8 June 2005. That August, Chang announced a three-year plan to clean up the polluted Tamsui River. The next month, Chang ordered sanitation companies to stop gathering kitchen waste to use as a component in pig feed, after discussions with the Council of Agriculture. He also worked to pass laws regarding greenhouse gas emissions, later starting a global warming awareness initiative. Chang supported implementation of an
for Taiwanese factories in 2006. However, the next year, environmentalist Robin Winkler claimed that the EPA favored industry over the environment. Chang then tried to sue Winkler for slandering the EPA. Chang resigned his position in May 2007, and was replaced by Winston Dang in June.
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