Synonyms for elateroidea or Related words with elateroidea
Examples of "elateroidea"
Omethidae is a family of
commonly known as the False Soldier Beetles.
are a large superfamily of beetles. It contains the familiar click beetles, fireflies, and soldier beetles and their relatives.
Historically, these beetles were placed in a superfamily "Cantharoidea", which has been subsumed by the superfamily
; the name is still sometimes used as a rankless grouping, including the families Cantharidae, Drilidae, Lampyridae, Lycidae, Omalisidae, Omethidae, Phengodidae (which includes Telegeusidae), and Rhagophthalmidae.
The internal classification of Polyphaga involves several superfamilies or series, whose constituents are relatively stable, although some smaller families (whose rank even is disputed) are allocated to different clades by different authors. Large superfamilies include Hydrophiloidea, Staphylinoidea, Scarabaeoidea, Buprestoidea, Byrrhoidea,
, and Bostrichoidea.
The Rhagophthalmidae are a glow worm-like lineage of
. They have in the recent past usually been considered a distinct family, but whether this is correct is still disputed. Indeed, they might be the only close relative of the puzzling firefly genus "Pterotus", which sometimes is placed in a monotypic subfamily.
The luciferases of fireflies - of which there are over 2000 species - and of the other
(click beetles and relatives in general) are diverse enough to be useful in molecular phylogeny. In fireflies, the oxygen required is supplied through a tube in the abdomen called the abdominal trachea. One well-studied luciferase is that of the Photinini firefly "Photinus pyralis", which has an optimum pH of 7.8.
Four families of beetles are bioluminescent. The wingless larviform females and larvae of these bioluminescent species are usually known as "glowworms". Winged males may or may not also exhibit bioluminescence. Their light may be emitted as flashes or as a constant glow, and usually range in color from green, yellow, to orange. The families are closely related, and are all members of the click beetle superfamily,
. Phylogenetic analyses have indicated that bioluminescence may have a single evolutionary origin among the families Lampyridae, Phengodidae, and Rhagophthalmidae; but is likely to have arisen independently among Elateridae.
As a consequence of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the fossil record of insects is scant, including beetles from the Lower Triassic. However, there are a few exceptions, such as in Eastern Europe. At the Babiy Kamen site in the Kuznetsk Basin, numerous beetle fossils were discovered, including entire specimens of the infraorders Archostemata (e.g. Ademosynidae, Schizocoleidae), Adephaga (e.g., Triaplidae, Trachypachidae) and Polyphaga (e.g. Hydrophilidae, Byrrhidae,
). However, species from the families Cupedidae and Schizophoroidae are not present at this site, whereas they dominate at other fossil sites from the Lower Triassic. Further records are known from Khey-Yaga, Russia, in the Korotaikha Basin.
The Rhagophthalmidae are a family of beetles within the larger
group that include click-beetles. Members of this beetle family have bioluminescent organs on the larvae and are closely related to the Phengodidae (glowworm beetles) and Lampyridae (fireflies), and were often included in one of these families as a subfamily—Rhagophthalminae. Towards the end of the 20th century, they were increasingly seen as a distinct family. But they might be the only reasonably close living relatives of the mysterious fireflies of genus "Pterotus", and could eventually end up in a Lampyridae subfamily with these. They were mainly included in the Phengodidae for having similar adaptation for displaying glowing lights. However, this seems to be due to convergent evolution. If they indeed belong in the Lampyridae, they are related to a group of families that have either a distinct type of flashing lights (Luciolinae) or rely exclusively or nearly so on pheromones for communication (the others).
As a consequence of the P-Tr Mass Extinction at the border of Permian and Triassic, there is only little fossil record of insects including beetles from the Lower Triassic. However, there are a few exemptions, like in Eastern Europe: At the Babiy Kamen site in the Kuznetsk Basin numerous beetle fossils were discovered, even entire specimen of the infraorders Archostemata (i.e., Ademosynidae, Schizocoleidae), Adephaga (i.e., Triaplidae, Trachypachidae) and Polyphaga (i.e., Hydrophilidae, Byrrhidae,
) and in nearly a perfectly preserved condition. However, species from the families Cupedidae and Schizophoroidae are not present at this site, whereas they dominate at other fossil sites from the Lower Triassic. Further records are known from Khey-Yaga, Russia in the Korotaikha Basin.
During the Jurassic (), there was a dramatic increase in the diversity of beetle families, including the development and growth of carnivorous and herbivorous species. The Chrysomeloidea diversified around the same time, feeding on a wide array of plant hosts from cycads and conifers to angiosperms. Close to the Upper Jurassic, the Cupedidae decreased, but the diversity of the early plant-eating species increased. Most recent plant-eating beetles feed on flowering plants or angiosperms, whose success contributed to a doubling of plant-eating species during the Middle Jurassic. However, the increase of the number of beetle families during the Cretaceous does not correlate with the increase of the number of angiosperm species. Around the same time, numerous primitive weevils (e.g. Curculionoidea) and click beetles (e.g.
) appeared. The first jewel beetles (e.g. Buprestidae) are present, but they remained rare until the Cretaceous. The first scarab beetles were not coprophagous but presumably fed on rotting wood with the help of fungus; they are an early example of a mutualistic relationship.
Jules Bourgeois was initially associated with his father and brother in Rouen, as the Paris representative of the family weaving business(1881-1889) and he finally representing the spinning mills of H. Schwartz in Sainte Marie-aux-Mines from 1893. He used his leisure time to follow his true vocation, that of naturalist. An entomologist of international fame, J.B. studied especially the exotic coleoptera in the then group Malacodermata, now unranked (
(in part), Lymexyloidea, Cleroidea, Tenebrionoidea). He described several hundreds of new species in many scientific publications and especially in the Bulletin and Annales of the Société entomologique de France of which he was a very active member. Jules Bourgeois is especially known to Alsatian entomologists by his catalogue of the beetles of "la chaîne des Vosges" and surrounding regions published in part in 1898 in the "Bulletin de la Société d’histoire naturelle de Colmar". One finds there more than 3000 species indexed with very many localities. The author thus showed the great richness of the entomological fauna of the Alsace,the richest of France, after the Provence and Côte d'Azur. With the death of Jules, the work, of 800 pages, was completed by Paul Scherdlin, conservator of the Musée zoologique de l'ULP et de la ville de Strasbourg, Strasbourg. In 1885, Jules Bourgeois had a rich collection of more than 15,000 species of Palearctic Coleoptera without counting all the exotic species. Because of the annexation of Alsace in 1870, this collection, like many others, was transferred to Paris. It is currently in the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. Jules Bourgeois was a member of the Société naturelle de Colmar, chair of the Société entomologique de France in 1883,and prize winner of the Dollfus price in 1894 allotted by the same society.His ore and mineral collection of the Rouen valley is one of the treasures of the museum of natural history of his native area. In parallel, he was devoted to local history and collaborated actively in the Revue d’Alsace, Review of Alsace. Président de la Société industrielle de Sainte Marie-aux-Mines. Officier d’académie.
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