Synonyms for emotivism or Related words with emotivism
Examples of "emotivism"
C. L. Stevenson also advanced an important version of
Ayer's version of
divides "the ordinary system of ethics" into four classes:
In the 1950s,
appeared in a modified form in the universal prescriptivism of R. M. Hare.
Moore's ethical intuitionism has been seen as opening the road for noncognitive views of morality, such as
Ethics and Language is a 1944 book by C. L. Stevenson which was influential in furthering the metaethical view of
first espoused by David Hume.
Konečni recently published a theoretical article on emotion in the domain of painting and art installations and discussed
in this context also.
Romance raises questions of
(or in a more pejorative sense, nihilism) such as whether spiritual attraction, of the world, might not actually rise above or distinguish itself from that of the body or aesthetic sensibility.
This makes prescriptivism a universalist form of non-cognitivism. Prescriptivism stands in opposition to other forms of non-cognitivism (such as
and quasi-realism), as well as to all forms of cognitivism (including both moral realism and ethical subjectivism).
A. J. Ayer's version of
is given in chapter six, "Critique of Ethics and Theology", of "Language, Truth and Logic". In that chapter, Ayer divides "the ordinary system of ethics" into four classes:
A close cousin of
, developed by R. M. Hare, is called universal prescriptivism. Prescriptivists interpret ethical statements as being universal "imperatives", prescribing behavior for all to follow. According to prescriptivism,
Some early versions of expressivism arose during the early twentieth century in association with logical positivism. These early views are typically called "noncognitivist". A. J. Ayer’s
is a well-known example.
Hume's theory of ethics has been influential in modern day meta-ethical theory, helping to inspire
, and ethical expressivism and non-cognitivism, as well as Allan Gibbard's general theory of moral judgment and judgments of rationality.
Hare was greatly influenced by the
of A. J. Ayer and Charles L. Stevenson, the ordinary language philosophy of J. L. Austin, a certain reading of the later philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, utilitarianism, and Immanuel Kant.
The emergence of logical positivism and its verifiability criterion of meaning early in the 20th century led some philosophers to conclude that ethical statements, being incapable of empirical verification, were cognitively meaningless. This criterion was fundamental to A.J. Ayer's defense of positivism in "Language, Truth and Logic", which contains his statement of
. However, positivism is not essential to
itself, perhaps not even in Ayer's form, and some positivists in the Vienna Circle, which had great influence on Ayer, held non-emotivist views.
Konečni has written that there is ample evidence to view the majority position about the relationship between music and emotion as an aspect of the socio-culturally prevalent “
,” which he distinguished from
in ethics, and defined as “the propensity for excessive insertion of emotion and ‘feeling’ into both lay and scientific theories of mental life, motives, needs, and daily behavior, in matters artistic and non-artistic.” He has suggested that the proclivity for emotional and quasi-emotional excess is related to the prevalent anti-narrative social climate, which often ignores evidence and reason.
Utilitarian philosopher Richard Brandt offered several criticisms of
in his 1959 book "Ethical Theory". His first is that "ethical utterances are not obviously the kind of thing the emotive theory says they are, and prima facie, at least, should be viewed as statements." He thinks that
cannot explain why most people, historically speaking, have considered ethical sentences to be "fact-stating" and not just emotive. Furthermore, he argues that people who change their moral views see their prior views as mistaken, not just different, and that this does not make sense if their attitudes were all that changed:
He gave the most sophisticated defense of
in the post-war period. In his papers "The Emotive Meaning of Ethical Terms" (1937) and "Persuasive Definitions" (1938), and his book "Ethics and Language" (1944), he developed a theory of emotive meaning; which he then used to provide a foundation for his theory of a persuasive definition. He furthermore advanced
as a meta-ethical theory that sharply delineated between cognitive, scientific uses of language (used to state facts and to give reasons, and subject to the laws of science) and non-cognitive uses (used to state feelings and exercise influence).
He was a professor at Yale University from 1939 to 1946, but was denied tenure because of his defense of
. He then taught at the University of Michigan from 1946 to 1977. He studied in England with Wittgenstein and G. E. Moore. Among his students was Joel Feinberg.
, associated with A. J. Ayer, the Vienna Circle and C. L. Stevenson, suggests that ethical sentences are primarily emotional expressions of one's own attitudes and are intended to influence the actions of the listener. Under this view, "Killing is wrong" is translated as "Killing, boo!" or "I disapprove of killing."
G. E. Moore published his "Principia Ethica" in 1903 and argued that the attempts of ethical naturalists to translate ethical terms (like "good" and "bad") into non-ethical ones (like "pleasing" and "displeasing") committed the "naturalistic fallacy". Moore was a cognitivist, but his case against ethical naturalism steered other philosophers toward noncognitivism, particularly
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