Synonyms for empiricism or Related words with empiricism
Examples of "empiricism"
opposes scientific realism, logical positivism (or logical
) and instrumentalism. Constructive
and scientific realism agree that theories are semantically literal, which logical positivism and instrumentalism deny. Constructive
, logical positivism and instrumentalism agree that theories do not aim for truth about unobservables, which scientific realism denies.
is a perspective within feminist research that focuses on combining the objectives and observations of feminism with the research methods and philosophical underpinnings of
is typically connected to mainstream notions of positivism; feminist
proposes that feminist theories can be objectively proven through evidence. However, one should not conclude that feminist
is a positivist approach furthering a feminist agenda. Feminist
is a distinct perspective, critiquing what it perceives to be inadequacies and biases within mainstream research methods, including positivism.
Gupta uses the notion of the hypothetical given to build a reformed
. He argues that this
has significant advantages over the traditional versions of the view. Among other features, Gupta’s
does not require the acceptance of an anti-realism about commonsense and theoretical objects, and it does not rely on the analytic-synthetic distinction to do any substantive work. Finally, Gupta argues that his reformed
incorporates plausible components of both foundationalism and coherentism.
Quine concluded his "Two Dogmas of
" as follows:
The Development of Rationalism and
Arthur Versluis proposes approaching esotericism through a “sympathetic
His areas of specialty include epistemology, Kant, and British
The Development of Logical
is a theory of knowledge which opposes other theories of knowledge, such as rationalism, idealism and historicism.
asserts that knowledge comes (only or primarily) via sensory experience as opposed to rationalism, which asserts that knowledge comes (also) from pure thinking. Both
and rationalism are individualist theories of knowledge, whereas historicism is a social epistemology. While historicism also acknowledges the role of experience, it differs from
by assuming that sensory data cannot be understood without considering the historical and cultural circumstances in which observations are made.
should not be mixed up with empirical research because different epistemologies should be considered competing views on how best to do studies, and there is near consensus among researchers that studies should be empirical. Today
should therefore be understood as one among competing ideals of getting knowledge or how to do studies. As such
is first and foremost characterized by the ideal to let observational data "speak for themselves", while the competing views are opposed to this ideal. The term
should thus not just be understood in relation to how this term has been used in the history of philosophy. It should also be constructed in a way which makes it possible to distinguish
among other epistemological positions in contemporary science and scholarship. In other words:
as a concept has to be constructed along with other concepts, which together make it possible to make important discriminations between different ideals underlying contemporary science.
By the start of the scientific revolution,
had already become an important component of science and natural philosophy. Prior thinkers, including the early 14th century nominalist philosopher William of Ockham, had begun the intellectual movement toward
For these reasons, Wilber subsequently deduces that ""sensory
"" cannot be included as one of ""the defining characteristics of the scientific method"", arguing that the "defining patterns of scientific knowledge" instead, "must be able to embrace both biology and mathematics, both geology and anthropology, both physics and logic—some of which are sensory-empirical, some of which are not." In this same regard however, he notes "there is "sensory
" (of the sensorimotor world)" or "
in the narrow sense", ""mental
" (including logic, mathematics, semiotics, phenomenology, and hermeneutics), and "spiritual
" (experiential mysticism, spiritual experiences)" or "
in the broad sense". "In other words, there is evidence seen by the "eye of flesh" (e.g., intrinsic features of the sensorimotor world), evidence seen by the "eye of mind" (e.g., mathematics and logic and symbolic interpretations), and evidence seen by the "eye of contemplation" (e.g., satori, nirvikalpa samadhi, gnosis)" [emphasis in original].
One innovation was that these mediators aren't ideas (British
), but properties, essences, or "character complexes."
George Berkeley has gone down in the handbooks as a great spokesman of British
The key motifs of process philosophy are:
, relationalism, process and events.
is the abandonment of strict empirical methods by modern empiricists.
is a term used in several ways in different fields.
These modeling efforts help to mitigate the
still prevailing in present-day space weather forecasting.
Among other criticisms, standpoint feminism critiques feminist
for its use of norms related to positivist methodology. In particular, standpoint feminism argues that feminist
cannot explain the way the political world works because the very foundations on which it is built are based on the same gendered assumptions that all mainstream scientific inquiry faces. Feminist
argues that because of its epistemological outlook, it can tackle this inherent gender bias within scientific inquiry.
"Principia Ethica" also had a powerful influence on modernism through the anti-
of T. E. Hulme.
"devoid of conception." Dan Arnold has argued that this is similar to a form of
termed epistemological representationalism.
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