Synonyms for enactivism or Related words with enactivism
Examples of "enactivism"
He is known for his research on
, affect, folk psychology and Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophy
The activity in the AI community also has influenced
as whole. Referring extensively to modeling techniques for evolutionary robotics by Beer, the modeling of learning behavior by Kelso, and to modeling of sensorimotor activity by Saltzman, McGann, De Jaegher, and Di Paolo discuss how this work makes the dynamics of coupling between an agent and its environment, the foundation of
, "an operational, empirically observable phenomenon." That is, the AI environment invents examples of
using concrete examples that, although not as complex as living organisms, isolate and illuminate basic principles.
is one of a cluster of related theories sometimes known as the "4Es", As described by Mark Rowlands, mental processes are:
is closely related to situated cognition and embodied cognition, and is presented as an alternative to cognitivism, computationalism, and Cartesian dualism.
It is closely related to the extended mind thesis, situated cognition and
. The modern version depends on insights drawn from recent research in psychology, linguistics, cognitive science, dynamical systems, artificial intelligence, robotics, plant cognition and neurobiology.
Cognitive externalism is a very broad collection of views that suggests the role of the environment, of tools, of development, and of the body in fleshing out cognition. Embodied cognition, the extended mind, and
are good examples.
His promotion and exploration of embodiment and
is carried on through his work in the academic consortium eSMCs, an EU funded project to investigate the role of sensorimotor contingencies in cognition.
A fourth theory of perception in opposition to naive realism,
, attempts to find a middle path between direct realist and indirect realist theories, positing that cognition arises as a result of the dynamic interplay between an organism's sensory-motor capabilities and its environment. Instead of seeing perception as a passive process determined entirely by the features of an independently existing world,
suggests that organism and environment are structurally coupled and co-determining. The theory was first formalized by Francisco Varela, Evan Thompson, and Eleanor Rosch in "The Embodied Mind".
argues that cognition arises through a dynamic interaction between an acting organism and its environment. It claims that our environment is one which we selectively create through our capacities to interact with the world. "Organisms do not passively receive information from their environments, which they then translate into internal representations. Natural cognitive systems...participate in the generation of meaning ...engaging in transformational and not merely informational interactions: "they enact a world"." These authors suggest that the increasing emphasis upon enactive terminology presages a new era in thinking about cognitive science. How the actions involved in
relate to age-old questions about free will remains a topic of active debate.
This view from 1970 is still espoused today, and conflicts with Dawkins' view of "the gene as a form of "information [that] passes through bodies and affects them, but is not affected by them on its way through". The philosophical/biological field of
stresses the interaction of the living agent with its environment and the relation of probing the environment to cognition and adaptation. Gene activation depends upon the cellular milieu. An extended discussion of the contrasts between
and Dawkins' views, and with their support by Dennett, is provided by Thompson.
McGann & others argue that
attempts to mediate between the explanatory role of the coupling between cognitive agent and environment and the traditional emphasis on brain mechanisms found in neuroscience and psychology. In the interactive approach to social cognition developed by De Jaegher & others, the dynamics of interactive processes are seen to play significant roles in coordinating interpersonal understanding, processes that in part include what they call "participatory sense-making". Recent developments of
in the area of social neuroscience involve the proposal of "The Interactive Brain Hypothesis" where social cognition brain mechanisms, even those used in non-interactive situations, are proposed to have interactive origins.
In cultural psychology,
is seen as a way to uncover cultural influences upon feeling, thinking and acting. Baerveldt and Verheggen argue that "It appears that seemingly natural experience is thoroughly intertwined with sociocultural realities." They suggest that the social patterning of experience is to be understood through
, "the idea that the reality we have in common, and in which we find ourselves, is neither a world that exists independently from us, nor a socially shared way of representing such a pregiven world, but a world itself brought forth by our ways of communicating and our joint action...The world we inhabit is manufactured of 'meaning' rather than 'information'.
is a case of externalism, sometimes restricted to cognitive or semantic aspects, some other times striving to encompass phenomenal aspects. Something that no enactivist has so far claimed is that all phenomenal content is the result of the interaction with the environment.
Ezequiel A Di Paolo (born in Buenos Aires, 1970) is a full-time Research Professor at Ikerbasque, the Basque Foundation for Science. He also has affiliations with the Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Robotics at the University of Sussex. His field of research covers
and embodiment in cognitive science.
In philosophy of mind, dualism or duality is the position that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical, or that the mind and body are not identical. Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, and between subject and object, and is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism and
, in the mind–body problem.
Philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual objects, in particular how perceptual experience relates to appearances and beliefs about the world. The main contemporary views within philosophy of perception include naive realism,
and representional views.
Di Paolo believes that embodiment and
have the potential to increase our understanding in traditional problems of cognition, and advocates that these alternative views should be explored and developed further, rather than being subsumed (or 'watered down') under more traditional frameworks, such as the cartesian dualistic model.
receives support from various other correlated views such as embodied cognition or situated cognition. These views are usually the result of the rejection of the classic computational view of the mind which is centered on the notion of internal representations.
receives its share of negative comments, particularly from neuroscientists such as Christof Koch (Koch 2004, p. 9): “While proponents of the enactive point of view rightly emphasize that perception usually takes place within the context of action, I have little patience for their neglect of the neural basis of perception. If there is one thing that scientists are reasonably sure of, it is that brain activity is both necessary and sufficient for biological sentience.”
and embodied cognition stress the tight coupling between the cognitive processes, the body, and the environment.
builds upon the work of other scholars who could be considered as proto externalists; these include Gregory Bateson, James J. Gibson, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Eleanor Rosch and many others. These thinkers suggest that the mind is either dependent on or identical with the interactions between the world and the agents. For instance, Kevin O’Regan and Alva Noe suggested in a seminal paper that the mind is constituted by the sensory-motor contingency between the agent and the world. A sensory-motor contingency is an occasion to act in a certain way and it results from the matching between environmental and bodily properties. To a certain extent a sensory-motor contingencies strongly resembles Gibson’s affordances. Eventually, Noe developed a more epistemic version of
where the content is the knowledge the agent has as to what it can do in a certain situation. In any case he is an externalist when he claims that “What perception is, however, is not a process in the brain, but a kind of skilful activity on the part of the animal as a whole. The enactive view challenges neuroscience to devise new ways of understanding the neural basis of perception and consciousness” (Noë 2004, p. 2). Recently, Noe published a more popular and shorter version of his position.
Torrance adds that "many kinds of agency, in particular the agency of human beings, cannot be understood separately from understanding the nature of the interaction that occurs between agents." That view introduces the social applications of
. "Social cognition is regarded as the result of a special form of action, namely "social interaction"...the enactive approach looks at the circular dynamic within a dyad of embodied agents."
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