Synonyms for exanthem or Related words with exanthem
Examples of "exanthem"
or exanthema (from Greek ἐξάνθημα "exánthēma", "a breaking out") is a widespread rash usually occurring in children. An
can be caused by toxins, drugs, or microorganisms, or can result from autoimmune disease.
of childhood (APEC) (also known as "unilateral laterothoracic
") is a rare, self-limited and spontaneously resolving skin rash of the
type with unknown cause that occurs in children. It occurs primarily in the late winter and early spring, most common in Europe, and affecting girls more often than boys.
Eruptive hypomelanosis is a novel paraviral
suspected to be related to viral infections.
Many other common viruses apart from the ones mentioned above can also produce an
as part of their presentation, though they are not considered part of the classic numbered list:
Parvovirus B19 was the first pathogenic human parvovirus to be discovered and is best known for causing a childhood
called ""fifth disease"" ("erythema infectiosum"), although it is also associated with other diseases including arthritis.
Because watery nasal discharge containing live virus usually precedes both
(external rash) and enanthem (oral ulcers) by 1 to 2 days, the infected person actually becomes contagious one to two days before recognition of the disease. Contagiousness persists until all vesicular lesions have become dry crusts (scabs), which usually entails four or five days, by which time nasal shedding of live virus ceases.
Betaherpesvirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae. Mammals serve as natural hosts. There are currently 18 species in this subfamily, divided among 4 genera. Diseases associated with this subfamily include: HHV-5: congenital CMV infection. HHV-6: 'sixth disease' (roseola infantum,
subitum). HHV-7: symptoms analog to the 'sixth disease'.
The specific name "exanthematicus" is derived from the Greek word "
" meaning an eruption or blister of the skin. French botanist and zoologist Louis Augustin Guillaume Bosc originally described this lizard as "Lacerta exanthematica" in reference to the large oval scales on the back of its neck.
Roseolovirus is a genus of viruses in the order "Herpesvirales", in the family "Herpesviridae", in the subfamily "Betaherpesvirinae". Humans serve as natural hosts. There are currently three species in this genus including the type species "Human herpesvirus 6A". Diseases associated with this genus include: HHV-6: sixth disease (roseola infantum,
subitum); HHV-7: symptoms analog to the 'sixth disease'.
An "Arcanobacterium haemolyticum" infection is any of several types of infection with the gram-positive bacillus "Arcanobacterium haemolyticum". It can cause an acute pharyngitis, and it may cause an
characterized by an erythematous, morbilliform or scarlatiniform eruption involving the trunk and extremities.
disease is a cutaneous condition that first occurred as an epidemic in Boston in 1951. It is caused by echovirus 16. The disease tends to afflict children more often than adults, although some adults can become infected, and the symptoms have never been fatal. It shows some clinical similarity to Rubella and Human herpesvirus 6
Roseola is a disease of children, generally under two years old. Although it has been known to occur in eighteen-year-olds, whose manifestations are usually limited to a transient rash ("
") that occurs following a fever of about three days' duration.
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a set of two closely related herpes viruses known as HHV-6A and HHV-6B that infect nearly all human beings, typically before the age of two. The acquisition of HHV-6 in infancy is often symptomatic, resulting in childhood fever, diarrhea, and
subitum rash (commonly known as roseola). Although rare, this initial infection can also cause febrile seizures, encephalitis or intractable seizures.
Dukes' disease, named after Clement Dukes, also known as fourth disease or Filatov-Dukes' disease (after Nil Filatov), is an
. It is distinguished from measles or forms of rubella though it was considered as a form of viral rash. Although Dukes identified it as a separate entity, it is thought not to be different from scarlet fever caused by exotoxin-producing "Streptococcus pyogenes" after Keith Powell proposed equating it with the condition currently known as Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in 1979.
Franklin Allen Neva (b. Jun. 8, 1922, Cloquet, Minnesota - d. Oct. 16, 2011, Billings, Montana) was a virologist and physician who discovered Boston
disease, helped isolate rubella virus, and worked with Jonas Salk on the development of the polio vaccine. He was the first member of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene to receive the Ben Kean Medal, in 1995, and also won the Donald Mackay Medal.
The first known outbreak of Boston
disease occurred in late summer of 1951 in Boston, Massachusetts. The initial symptoms were thought to be Rubella, however the clinical features were different. Patients exhibited no Koplik's spots, the course of the infection was shorter, and the skin lesions differed from Rubella. Two physicians, Franklin A. Neva from the University of Pittsburgh, and Ilse J. Gorbach investigated the outbreak. Through surveys sent to physicians, 18 cases were identified and specimens collected, 15 children and 3 adults.
At the blister stage, intense itching is usually present. Blisters may also occur on the palms, soles, and genital area. Commonly, visible evidence of the disease develops in the oral cavity and tonsil areas in the form of small ulcers which can be painful or itchy or both; this enanthem (internal rash) can precede the
(external rash) by 1 to 3 days or can be concurrent. These symptoms of chickenpox appear 10 to 21 days after exposure to a contagious person. Adults may have a more widespread rash and longer fever, and they are more likely to experience complications, such as varicella pneumonia.
Rubella has symptoms that are similar to those of flu. However, the primary symptom of rubella virus infection is the appearance of a rash (
) on the face which spreads to the trunk and limbs and usually fades after three days (that is why it is often referred to as three-day measles). The facial rash usually clears as it spreads to other parts of the body. Other symptoms include low grade fever, swollen glands (sub-occipital and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy), joint pains, headache, and conjunctivitis.
Galen notes that the exanthema covered the victim’s entire body and was usually black. The
became rough and scabby where there was no ulceration. He states that those that were going to survive developed a black
. According to Galen, it was black because of a remnant of blood putrefied in a fever blister that was pustular. His writings state that raised blisters were present in the Antonine plague, usually in the form of a blistery rash. Galen states that the skin rash was close to the one Thucydides described. Galen describes symptoms of the alimentary tract via a patient’s diarrhea and stools. If the stool was very black, the patient died. He says that the amount of black stools varied. It depended on the severity of the intestinal lesions. He observes that in cases where the stool was not black, the black exanthema appeared. Galen describes the symptoms of fever, vomiting, fetid breath, catarrh, cough, and ulceration of the larynx and trachea.
Neva received his MD from University of Minnesota Medical School in 1946, as part of a Navy training program. He completed his medical residency at Boston City Hospital, followed by service with the US Navy at Naval Medical Research Unit-3 in Cairo, Egypt. He spent several years at Harvard University as a researcher. He became a professor at University of Pittsburgh, where he worked with Jonas Salk on a vaccine for polio. While at Pittsburgh, he also isolated ECHO 16, the virus responsible for Boston
disease. This was the first description of that disease. Together with Thomas Weller, he isolated the Rubella virus in 1962. In 1964 he moved back to Harvard to head the Department of Tropical Public Health. In 1969 he joined the National Institutes of Health, as the chief of the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. He remained at that post until his retirement in 2004.
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