Synonyms for gynaecomastia or Related words with gynaecomastia
Examples of "gynaecomastia"
Faintness, dizziness, headache, palpitations, epistaxis, blurred vision, urinary urgency and
rarely appear in patients who take benoxaprofen.
Sertoli cell tumours typically present as a testicular mass or firmness, and their presence may be accompanied by
(25%) if they produce oestrogens, or precocious pseudopuberty in young boys, especially if they produce androgens.
Al-Zahrawi was a tenth century Arab physician. He is sometimes referred to as the "Father of surgery". He describes what is thought to be the first attempt at reduction mammaplasty for the management of
and the first mastectomy to treat breast cancer. He is credited with the performance of the first thryoidectomy.
Endocrinopathy: In women, amenorrhoea, and in men,
, erectile dysfunction and testicular atrophy, are common early symptoms due to dysfunction of the gonadal axis. Other hormonal problems occurring in at least a quarter of patients include type 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency.
Finerenone (INN, USAN) (developmental code name BAY-94-8862) is a non-steroidal antimineralocorticoid that is in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of chronic heart failure . It has less relative affinity to other steroid hormone receptors than currently available antimineralocorticoids such as eplerenone and spironolactone, which should result in fewer adverse effects like
, impotence, and low sex drive.
In men testicular swelling is the most common presenting feature. Other symptoms depend on their age and the type of tumour. If it is secreting androgens the tumour is usually asymptomatic, but can cause precocious puberty in pre-pubertal boys. If the tumour secretes oestrogens it can cause feminisation in young boys. In adults, this causes a number of problems including
, erectile dysfunction, infertility, feminine hair distribution, gonadogenital atrophy, and a loss of libido.
There is evidence that "A. sinensis" may affect the muscles of the uterus. Women who are pregnant or planning on becoming pregnant should not use "A. sinensis", because it may induce a miscarriage. Taking "A. sinensis" can cause skin to become extra sensitive to the sun, leading to a greater risk for skin cancer. One case of
has been reported following consumption of "dong quai" root powder pills. Large and prolonged doses of the plant is not advised as it contains compounds that are considered carcinogenic.
Arthur Webb-Jones was educated at Malvern College, St Thomas’s Hospital, and the University of London (LRCP,1899; BS,1911; MD,1913), where the subject of his MD thesis was "Bilharziosis in Women", a subject was able to write authoritatively owing to his wide experience in gynaecological surgery in Alexandria, Egypt. Notable published works include 'Lumbar Hernia' (The Lancet, 1902, ii, 747)) and 'Two Cases of
' (Ibid, 1904, i, 865). He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England on 31 May 1900.
Common adverse effects (≥1% of patients) include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea as gastrointestinal motility increases. Other common effects are blurred vision, visual disturbances (yellow-green halos and problems with color perception), confusion, drowsiness, dizziness, insomnia, nightmares, agitation, and depression, as well as a higher acute sense of sensual activities. Less frequent adverse effects (0.1%–1%) include: acute psychosis, delirium, amnesia, convulsions, shortened QRS complex, atrial or ventricular extrasystoles, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia with AV block, ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, and heart block. Rarely, digoxin has been shown to cause thrombocytopenia.
(enlargement of breast tissue) is mentioned in many textbooks as a side effect, thought to be due to the estrogen-like steroid moiety of the digoxin molecule, but when systematically sought, the evidence for this is equivocal.
Later, convinced by the advice of his brother and his own solicitor, Turing entered a plea of guilty. The case, "Regina v. Turing and Murray," was brought to trial on 31 March 1952. Turing was convicted and given a choice between imprisonment and probation, which would be conditional on his agreement to undergo hormonal treatment designed to reduce libido. He accepted the option of treatment via injections of what was then called stilboestrol (now known as diethylstilbestrol or DES), a synthetic oestrogen; this treatment was continued for the course of one year. The treatment rendered Turing impotent and caused
, fulfilling in the literal sense Turing's prediction that "no doubt I shall emerge from it all a different man, but quite who I've not found out". Murray was given a conditional discharge.
A case report of male breast cancer subsequent to bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia has been published. According to the authors, "this is the second confirmed case of breast cancer in association with bicalutamide-induced
(correspondence AstraZeneca)." It is notable, however, that gynecomastia does not seem to increase the risk of breast cancer in men. Moreover, the lifetime incidence of breast cancer in men is approximately 0.1%, the average age of diagnosis of prostate cancer and male breast cancer are similar (around 70 years), and millions of men have been treated with bicalutamide for prostate cancer, all of which are potentially in support of the notion of chance co-occurrences. In accordance, the authors concluded that "causality cannot be established" and that it was "probable that the association is entirely coincidental and sporadic."
Unlike testosterone and certain other anabolic steroids, nandrolone is not potentiated in androgenic tissues like the scalp, skin, and prostate, and hence, deleterious effects in these tissues are lessened to a degree. This is because nandrolone is metabolized by 5α-reductase to the much weaker androgen 5α-dihydronandrolone (DHN), which has both reduced affinity for the androgen receptor (AR) relative to nandrolone "in vitro" and weaker androgenic activity "in vivo". The lack of alkylation on the 17α-carbon drastically reduces the hepatotoxic potential of nandrolone. Estrogenic effects resulting from reaction with aromatase are also reduced due to lessened enzyme interaction, but effects such as
and reduced libido may still occur at sufficiently high doses.
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