Synonyms for gynecomastia or Related words with gynecomastia

andropause              hypoestrogenism              metrorrhagia              gynaecomastia              adenomyosis              oligomenorrhea              hysteromyoma              impotence              menopausal              mastopathy              prostatomegaly              perimenopause              virilization              leiomyomata              hypogonadism              hyperandrogenemia              prostatism              menorrhagia              postmenopausal              masculinization              polymenorrhea              hirsutism              varicocele              feminization              subfertility              menopause              hyperprolactinemia              mastodynia              perimenopausal              priapism              mastalgia              metrofibroma              oligospermia              myomas              premenopausal              amenorrhea              hypergonadotropic              oligomenorrhoea              hypermenorrhea              hypospadias              galactorrhea              hyperandrogenism              dyspareunia              ohss              prepubertal              prostactic              pcos              menoxenia              osteopenia              hypercalcaemia             



Examples of "gynecomastia"
Gynecomastia is the most common benign disorder of the male breast tissue. New cases of gynecomastia are common in three age populations: newborns, adolescents, and men older than 50 years old. Newborn gynecomastia occurs in about 60-90% of male babies and most cases resolve on their own. During adolescence, up to 70% of males are estimated to exhibit signs of gynecomastia. Senile gynecomastia is estimated to be present in 24-65% of men between the ages of fifty and eighty.
Medical treatment of gynecomastia is most effective when done within the first two years after the start of male breast enlargement. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as tamoxifen or raloxifene may be beneficial in the treatment of gynecomastia but are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in gynecomastia. Tamoxifen may be used for painful gynecomastia in adults. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used off-label for cases of gynecomastia occurring during puberty. A few cases of gynecomastia caused by the rare disorders aromatase excess syndrome and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome have responded to treatment with AIs such as anastrozole.
Other side effects include galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, impotence.
** which can lead to galactorrhea, gynecomastia, etc.
When the human body is deprived of adequate nutrition, testosterone levels drop while the adrenal glands continue to produce estrogens thereby causing a hormonal imbalance. Gynecomastia can also occur once normal nutrition is restarted (this is known as refeeding gynecomastia).
Gynecomastia can result in psychological distress for those with the condition. Common derogatory terms for gynecomastia include "moobs" (for man boobs) and "bitch tits". Support groups exist to help improve the self-esteem of affected individuals.
Individuals with prostate cancer who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy may experience gynecomastia.
The spectrum of gynecomastia severity has been categorized into a grading system:
The development of gynecomastia is usually associated with benign pubertal changes; in adolescent boys, the condition is often a source of psychological distress. However, 75% of pubertal gynecomastia cases resolve within two years of onset without treatment. In rare cases, gynecomastia has been known to occur in association with certain disease states. Gynecomastia may be seen in individuals with Klinefelter syndrome or certain cancers, with disorders involving the endocrine system or metabolic dysfunction, with the use of certain medications, or in older males due to a natural decline in testosterone production.
Some cases of gynecomastia have been reported with men on amiodarone.
The major effect of estrogenicity is gynecomastia (woman-like breasts). AAS that have a high potential for aromatization like testosterone and particularly methyltestosterone show a high risk of gynecomastia, while AAS that have a reduced potential for aromatization like nandrolone show a much lower risk (though still significant at high dosages). In contrast, AAS that are 4,5α-reduced, and some other AAS (e.g., 11β-methylated 19-nortestosterone derivatives), have no risk of gynecomastia. In addition to gynecomastia, AAS with high estrogenicity have increased antigonadotropic activity, which results in increased potency in suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and gonadal testosterone production.
The classic feature of gynecomastia is male breast enlargement with soft, compressible, and mobile subcutaneous chest tissue palpated under the areola of the nipple in contrast to softer fatty tissue. This enlargement may occur on one side or both. Dimpling of the skin and nipple retraction are not typical features of gynecomastia. Milky discharge from the nipple is also not a typical finding, but may be seen in a gynecomastic individual with a prolactin secreting tumor. Males with gynecomastia may appear anxious or stressed due to concerns about the possibility of having breast cancer. An increase in the diameter of the areola and asymmetry of chest tissue are other possible signs of gynecomastia.
Male bra – also known as a compression bra, compression vest, or gynecomastia vest – refers to brassieres that are worn by men. Men sometimes develop breasts and the estimates of those with the condition are presented as a range "because the definition of gynecomastia varies and the method of surveying varies." Although there are options for treating gynecomastia, some elect surgery to reduce their breasts or wear a male bra. Male bras typically flatten rather than lift.
Gynecomastia is thought to be caused by an altered ratio of estrogens to androgens mediated by an increase in estrogen production, a decrease in androgen production, or a combination of these two factors. Estrogen acts as a growth hormone to increase the size of male breast tissue. The cause of gynecomastia is unknown in around 25% of cases. Drugs are estimated to cause 10–25% of cases of gynecomastia.
In women, spironolactone is commonly associated with breast pain and breast enlargement, "probably because of [indirect] estrogenic effects on target tissue." Breast enlargement may occur in 26% of women and is described as mild, while breast tenderness is reported to occur in up to 40% of women taking high dosages of the drug. Spironolactone also commonly and dose-dependently produces gynecomastia (woman-like breasts) as a side effect in men. At low dosages, the rate is only 5–10%, but at high dosages, up to or exceeding 50% of men may develop gynecomastia. The severity of the gynecomastia varies considerably, but is usually mild. As with women, gynecomastia associated with spironolactone is commonly although inconsistently accompanied by breast tenderness. Gynecomastia induced by spironolactone usually regresses after a few weeks following discontinuation of the drug.
Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with antiestrogenic actions in breast tissue and estrogenic actions in bone, has been found to be highly effective in preventing and reversing bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia in men. Moreover, in contrast to analogues (which also alleviate bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia), tamoxifen poses minimal risk of accelerated bone loss and osteoporosis. For reasons that are unclear, anastrozole, an aromatase inhibitor (or an inhibitor of estrogen biosynthesis), has been found to be much less effective in comparison to tamoxifen for treating bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia. A systematic review of -induced gynecomastia and breast tenderness concluded that tamoxifen (10–20 mg/day) and radiotherapy could effectively manage the side effect without relevant adverse effects, though with tamoxifen showing superior effectiveness. Surgical breast reduction may also be employed to correct bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia.
Mutations in the "PROKR2" (also known as "KAL3") gene have been implicated in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and gynecomastia.
Aromatase inhibitors such as testolactone have been approved for the treatment of gynecomastia in children and adolescents.
Unlike some anabolic steroids, oxandrolone does not generally cause gynecomastia because it is not aromatized into estrogenic metabolites.
Mutations in the "PROK2" (also known as "KAL4") gene have been implicated in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and gynecomastia.