Synonyms for hatra or Related words with hatra
Examples of "hatra"
District is a district of the Ninawa Governorate, Iraq.
The murder of Severus Alexander by his soldiers and its aftermath which resulted in disturbances in Rome, motivated Ardashir to attack Rome again. In about the years 237-238, Ardashir took Nusaybin and Harran and attacked the city Dura; then he marched toward
, which was a commercial city and the center of the traffic of commercial caravans.
stood hard against the Persian siege and did not fall until April or September 240; it seems that
was chosen as a point for pushing and operation against Roman Mesopotamia. The fall of
might have been the cause of Gordian III's wars with Persia.
Sanatruq II was the last king of
(an ancient city in nowadays Iraq), ruling from about AD 200 to 240/41. He was the son of king Abdsamiya and is attested by nine inscriptions discovered at
. Only two of these inscription bear year datings, both are hard to read.(perhaps 231 and 237/38)
was probably built in the 3rd or 2nd century BC by the Seleucid Empire. After its capture by the Parthian Empire, it flourished during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD as a religious and trading center. Later on, the city became the capital of possibly the first Arab Kingdom in the chain of Arab cities running from
, in the northeast, via Palmyra, Baalbek and Petra, in the southwest. The region controlled from
was the Kingdom of Araba, a semi-autonomous buffer kingdom on the western limits of the Parthian Empire, governed by Arabian princes.
Ashurian ( "") is a dialect of Middle Aramaic that was once that was once the dialect of the region encompassing the cities of Assur and
and the Nineveh plains in the centre, up to Tur Abdin in the north, Dura-Europos in the west and Tikrit in the south. The majority of the evidence of the language comes from inscriptions within the cities dating between 100 BC and the mid-200s AD, coinciding with Shapur I's destruction of
in 241 AD and Assur in 257 AD. As a result of
being the site with the most attestation, it is often referred to as Hatran Aramaic.
Wolgash or Vologash was a king of
, an ancient city in nowadays Iraq. He is known from more than 20 inscriptions found at
and reigned from about AD 140 to 180. He was the son of Naṣru who reigned from about AD 128 to 140. He was one of the first rulers of
calling himself "mlk" ("king"), but he bears also the title "mry' " ("lord"). Both titles are also attested for his brother Sanatruq I. It is unclear whether they both reigned together and took the title "king" at some point in their reign, or whether Sanatruq succeeded Wolgash. His successor was either his brother or his nephew Abdsamiya.
became an important fortified frontier city and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire, and played an important role in the Second Parthian War. It repulsed the sieges of both Trajan (116/117) and Septimius Severus (198/199).
defeated the Iranians at the battle of Shahrazoor in 238, but fell to the Iranian Sassanid Empire of Shapur I in 241 and was destroyed. The traditional stories of the fall of
tell of an-Nadira, daughter of the King of Araba, who betrayed the city into the hands of Shapur. The story tells of how Shapur killed the king and married an-Nadira, but later had her killed also.
The Kingdom of Araba (or simply Araba) was a 2nd-century, semi-autonomous buffer kingdom between the Roman Empire and the Parthian Empire, mostly under Parthian influence, located in modern Iraq. The city of
was probably founded in the 3rd or 2nd century BCE, under the Seleucid kingdom. Arabs were common in Mesopotamia at the time of the Seleucids (3rd century BC). In the 1st and 2nd century,
was ruled by a dynasty of Arabian princes. It rose to prominence as the capital of Araba.
would become an important religious center as a result of its strategic position along caravan trade routes.
Actions by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, which occupied the area in mid-2014, have been a major threat to
. In early 2015 they announced their intention to destroy many artifacts, claiming that such "graven images" were un-Islamic, encouraged shirk (or polytheism), and could not be permitted to exist, despite the preservation of the site for 1,400 years by various Islamic regimes. Isis militants pledged to destroy the remaining artifacts. Shortly thereafter, they released a video showing the destruction of some artifacts from
. After the bulldozing of Nimrud on March 5, 2015, "
of course will be next" said Abdulamir Hamdani, an Iraqi archaeologist from Stony Brook University. On March 7, Kurdish sources reported ISIS had begun the bulldozing of
A number of at least partly neo-Assyrian kingdoms existed in the area between in the late classical and early Christian period also; Adiabene,
The ancient ruins of
lie 2 km northwest of the modern settlement. The population of the settlement and nearby villages greatly shrank by 2012 due to deforestation.
was used as the setting for the opening scene in the 1973 film "The Exorcist", and since 1985 is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The date of Shapur's coronation remains debated: 240 is frequently noted, but Ardashir lived probably until 242. The year 240 also marks the seizure and subsequent destruction of
, about 100 km southwest of Nineveh and Mosul in present-day Iraq. According to legend, al-Nadirah, the daughter of the king of
, betrayed her city to the Sasanians, who then killed the king and had the city razed. (Legends also have Shapur either marrying al-Nadirah, or having her killed, or both.)
Naṣru was a local governor at
(an ancient town in the North of modern Iraq). He is attested by at least in 34 inscriptions found in the
. Three of the inscriptions are dated (between AD 128/29 and AD 137/38). A fourth one dates most likely after he died and gives the year 176/177 BC. The inscription dated to year AD 137/138 reports the building of the city wall and a city gate.
In inscriptions found at
, several rulers are mentioned. Other rulers are sporadically mentioned by classical authors. They appear with two titles. The earlier rulers are called "mrj´" (translation uncertain), the later ones "mlk" -"king".
Examples of this style are Ghal'eh Dokhtar, the royal compounds at Nysa, Anahita Temple, Khorheh,
, the Ctesiphon vault of Kasra, Bishapur, and the Palace of Ardashir in Ardeshir Khwarreh (Firouzabad).
In inscriptions found at
, several rulers are mentioned. Other rulers are sporadically mentioned by classical authors. They appear with two titles. The earlier rulers are called "mry´" (translation uncertain, perhaps "administrator"), the later ones "mlk" -"king".
Flavius Josephus, writing in the 1st century AD, describes the inhabitants of the state of Adiabene as Assyrians. Similarly, Osroene, Beth Garmai, Beth Nuhadra and
were Syriac-speaking states, although the last of these had a mixed population.
In England, Colledge became head of the department of classics at Westfield College and Queen Mary College, University of London. With Josef Wiesehöfer he wrote articles in the "Oxford Classical Dictionary" on "Ctesiphon", "
", "Hecatompylus", "Nisa", and "Palmyra".
Hatran is a Unicode block containing characters used on inscriptions discovered at
in Iraq, which are written in the Hatran alphabet and represent a form of the Aramaic language.
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