Synonyms for hemiballismus or Related words with hemiballismus

athetoid              hemihypacusis              athetosis              hyperkinesias              hemianesthesia              ballismus              choreoform              hemihypesthesia              choreiform              ballism              choreas              dysmetria              ataxic              hemiparesis              agnosias              incoordination              dyskensia              akinesia              quadriplegia              telangiestasia              hemiplegic              dysarthria              apraxia              hypesthesia              bradykinesias              hemiballism              anosognosia              dystonias              plmd              agitans              dysmnesia              hypokinesia              dysphasia              plegia              hemianopia              diplegia              aphasias              fredreich              hyperkinesia              choreic              torticollis              amnesias              choreatic              palinopsia              anterocollis              micropsia              akathisia              trismus              oromandibular              acanthocytosis             

Examples of "hemiballismus"
In examining the causes of hemiballismus, it is important to remember that this disorder is extremely rare. While hemiballismus can result from the following list, just because a patient suffers from one of these disorders does not mean they will also suffer from hemiballismus.
New uses for botulinum toxin have included treatment of hemiballismus. However, this is still in the early stages of testing. This treatment deals with the muscular manifestations of hemiballismus as opposed to the neurological causes.
Patients with HIV often have complications that arise along with AIDS. Hypoglycemia due to pentamidine use in patients with AIDS has been known to cause hemiballismus. In some patients, hemiballismus has been the only visible symptom to alert the physician that the patients may have AIDS. It is typically a result of a secondary infection that occurs due to the compromised immune system and the most common infection causing hemiballismus is cerebral toxoplasmosis. Most of the lesions that result from this infection are found in the basal ganglia. As long as the diagnosis is not missed, this type of hemiballismus can be treated just as well as in patients without HIV.
The name "hemiballismus" literally means "half ballistic", referring to the violent, flailing movements observed on one side of the body.
Hemiballismus can also occur as a result of a traumatic brain injury. There are cases in which victims of assault or other forms of violence have developed hemiballismus. Through these acts of violence, the victim’s brain has been damaged and the hemiballistic movements have developed.
A neoplasm is an abnormal growth of cells. Cases have shown that if this occurs somewhere in the basal ganglia, hemiballismus can result.
Due to the rarity of this disorder, scientists know very little about the details of hemiballismus. There are still many unanswered questions such as:
The term hemichorea refers to chorea of one side of the body, such as chorea of one arm but not both (analogous to hemiballismus).
Hemiballismus is a hyperkinetic movement disorder that causes uncontrolled movement on one side of the body. It is generally caused by damage to the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Since the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) is the link in the circuit between the STN and thalamic projection, destruction of localized brain cells in the GPi via a pallidotony has proven to serve as a useful treatment for Hemiballismus.
Typically caused by damage to the subthalamic nucleus or nuclei, hemiballismus movements are nonrhythmic, rapid, nonsuppressible, and violent. They usually occur in an isolated body part, such as the proximal arm.
The caudate nucleus is the portion of the basal ganglia that helps control voluntary movement. Damage to this area can also result in hemiballismus as it is directly related to voluntary movement.
In one case, a patient had not been responding to haloperidol, thus the physician tried olanzapine. The patient made a significant recovery. More research is being performed on the use of these types of drugs in treating hemiballismus.
While the majority of damage that causes hemiballismus occurs within the basal ganglia, there are still cases that have been documented on which damage to cortical structures has caused hemiballistic movements.
Demyelinating plaques attack the myelin sheaths on neurons. This decreases the conduction velocity of the neurons, making the signals received by the basal ganglia garbled and incomplete. This disorganized signal can also cause the chaotic movements characterized by hemiballismus.
This is another form of tumor that can result in the brain as a result of a tuberculous meningitis infection. This type of tumor can also damage parts of the basal ganglia, sometimes resulting in hemiballismus.
Its lesion resulting in hemiballismus is known for long. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus suppress most of the symptoms of the Parkinson' syndrome, particularly dyskinesia induced by dopamine therapy.
Unilateral destruction or disruption of the subthalamic nucleus – which can commonly occur via a small vessel stroke in patients with diabetes, hypertension, or a history of smoking – produces hemiballismus.
The work of J.R. Whittier, F.A. Mettler, and M.B. Carpenter in the mid 1900s helped scientists and clinicians form a more complete picture of hemiballismus. In their experiments, several lesions were made in the basal ganglia structures in monkeys and then they monitored the results. They noticed that the majority of the time, the monkeys did not have any unusual movements. However, when at least twenty percent of the subthalamic nucleus was damaged, abnormal movements were seen in the limbs opposite to the side of the brain that was damaged. This observation caused scientists to believe that hemiballismus outside the subthalamic nucleus did not occur. It was not until much later that this classical model began to expand to include other areas of the basal ganglia and even some cortical structures. They also noticed that unlike human patients, the unusual movements in the monkeys were mainly in the lower extremities. In about half of the monkeys, the hemiballismus continued until the monkey died.
From recent studies, it is now thought that hemiballismus can be associated with a decreased output of the globus pallidus. This is because studies have shown that firing rates decrease from 70/s to 40/s. In addition to a decreased firing rate, degenerative neurological disorders that cause patients to exhibit hemiballistic movements show a marked decrease in the globus pallidus mass as well. Increases in activity in this area causes there to be an inhibition of the motor thalamus. This causes cortical activation and thus a movement inhibition. In the case of hemiballismus, the opposite occurs, leading to the characteristic large, irregular movements.
Ballismus or ballism (called hemiballismus or hemiballism in its unilateral form) is a very rare movement disorder. It is a type of chorea caused in most cases by a decrease in activity of the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia, resulting in the appearance of flailing, ballistic, undesired movements of the limbs. It can also appear rarely due to certain metabolic abnormalities. It is a rare movement disorder, being 500 times rarer than Parkinson's disease. Hemiballismus can cause significant disability. Symptoms can decrease during sleep.