Synonyms for holism or Related words with holism

teleology              contextualism              epistemology              externalism              nominalism              empiricism              fallibilism              intuitionism              hermeneutics              epistemological              teleological              emergentism              reductionism              scientism              theism              relativism              hermeneutic              dialectical              solipsism              metatheory              monism              ontic              subjectivism              presentism              metaphysics              vitalism              essentialism              internalism              panpsychism              nominalist              pragmatism              materialist              dialectics              kantian              perspectivism              conventionalism              epistemic              coherentism              hermeneutical              cognitivism              atomism              organicism              gadamer              logicism              apophatic              presuppositions              normativity              empiricist              phenomenalism              supervenience             

Examples of "holism"
Holism and Evolution is a 1926 book by South African statesman Jan Smuts, in which he coined the word "holism", although Smuts' meaning is different from the modern concept of holism. Smuts defined holism as the "fundamental factor operative towards the creation of wholes in the universe."
Metaphysical Adlerians emphasise a spiritual holism in keeping with what Jan Smuts articulated (Smuts coined the term "holism"), that is, the spiritual sense of one-ness that holism usually implies (etymology of holism: from ὅλος holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) Smuts believed that evolution involves a progressive series of lesser wholes integrating into larger ones. Whilst Smuts' text "Holism and Evolution" is thought to be a work of science, it actually attempts to unify evolution with a higher metaphysical principle (holism). The sense of connection and one-ness revered in various religious traditions (among these, Baha'i, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Buddhism) finds a strong complement in Adler's thought.
Spannos, Chris. Introduction to Totality and Complementary Holism. Znet. 2008:
For Quine then (although Fodor and Lepore have maintained the contrary), and for many of his followers, confirmation holism and semantic holism are inextricably linked. Since confirmation holism is widely accepted among philosophers, a serious question for them has been to determine whether and how the two holisms can be distinguished or how the undesirable consequences of "unbuttoned holism", as Michael Dummett has called it, can be limited.
Dummett, for example, after rejecting Quinean holism (holism "tout court" in his sense), takes precisely this approach. But those who would opt for some version of moderate holism need to make the distinction between the parts of a language that are "constitutive" of the meaning
Epistemological and confirmation holism are mainstream ideas in contemporary philosophy.
Complementary holism sees two ways in which societies can change:
While in academia, Smuts pioneered the concept of holism, which he defined as "[the] fundamental factor operative towards the creation of wholes in the universe" in his 1926 book, "Holism and Evolution". Smuts' formulation of holism has been linked with his political-military activity, especially his aspiration to create a league of nations. As one biographer said:
A contrast to the reductionist approach is holism or emergentism. Holism is the idea that things can have properties, (emergent properties), as a whole that are not explainable from the sum of their parts. The principle of holism was concisely summarized by Aristotle in the Metaphysics: "The whole is more than the sum of its parts".
M'Pherson concluded that reductionism and holism don't have to contradict, but that "philosophy, theories and methods in systems science and systems philosophy offer a means for bringing reductionism and holism into a satisfactory alliance."
In the epistemology of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory).
The concept of holism played a pivotal role in Baruch Spinoza's philosophy
eco-holism, and it argues for the intrinsic value inherent in collective
The perspectives of holism and unity are central to the worldview of transpersonal psychology.
Fodor has made many and varied criticisms of holism. He identifies the central problem with all the different notions of holism as the idea that the determining factor in semantic evaluation is the notion of an "epistemic bond". Briefly, P is an epistemic bond of Q if the meaning of P is considered by someone to be relevant for the determination of the meaning of Q. Meaning holism strongly depends on this notion. The identity of the content of a mental state, under holism, can only be determined by the "totality" of its epistemic bonds. And this makes the realism of mental states an impossibility:
1. Smuts, J C. Holism and Evolution. New York, NY: The Macmillan Co; 1926.
Ontological holism was espoused by David Bohm in his theory on the implicate and explicate order.
After identifying the need for reform in the fundamental concepts of matter, life and mind (chapter 1) Smuts examines the reformed concepts (as of 1926) of space and time (chapter 2), matter (chapter 3) and biology (chapter 4) and concludes that the close approach to each other of the concepts of matter, life and mind, and the partial overflow of each other's domain, implies that there is a fundamental principle (Holism) of which they are the progressive outcome. Chapters 5 and 6 provide the general concept, functions and categories of Holism; chapters 7 and 8 address Holism with respect to Mechanism and Darwinism, chapters 9-11 make a start towards demonstrating the concepts and functions of Holism for the metaphysical categories (mind, personality, ideals) and the book concludes with a chapter that argues for the universal ubiquity of Holism and its place as a monistic ontology.
Erickson, H. (2007) Philosophy and theory of holism, Nursing clinics of North America, Vol. 42 (2), pp. 139–163.
A "rough and provisional" summary of the progressive grading of wholes that comprise holism is as follows: