Synonyms for holism or Related words with holism
Examples of "holism"
and Evolution is a 1926 book by South African statesman Jan Smuts, in which he coined the word "
", although Smuts' meaning is different from the modern concept of
. Smuts defined
as the "fundamental factor operative towards the creation of wholes in the universe."
Metaphysical Adlerians emphasise a spiritual
in keeping with what Jan Smuts articulated (Smuts coined the term "
"), that is, the spiritual sense of one-ness that
usually implies (etymology of
: from ὅλος holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) Smuts believed that evolution involves a progressive series of lesser wholes integrating into larger ones. Whilst Smuts' text "
and Evolution" is thought to be a work of science, it actually attempts to unify evolution with a higher metaphysical principle (
). The sense of connection and one-ness revered in various religious traditions (among these, Baha'i, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Buddhism) finds a strong complement in Adler's thought.
Spannos, Chris. Introduction to Totality and Complementary
. Znet. 2008: http://www.zcommunications.org/introduction-to-totality-and-complementary-
For Quine then (although Fodor and Lepore have maintained the contrary), and for many of his followers, confirmation
are inextricably linked. Since confirmation
is widely accepted among philosophers, a serious question for them has been to determine whether and how the two holisms can be distinguished or how the undesirable consequences of "unbuttoned
", as Michael Dummett has called it, can be limited.
Dummett, for example, after rejecting Quinean
"tout court" in his sense), takes precisely this approach. But those who would opt for some version of moderate
need to make the distinction between the parts of a language that are "constitutive" of the meaning
Epistemological and confirmation
are mainstream ideas in contemporary philosophy.
sees two ways in which societies can change:
While in academia, Smuts pioneered the concept of
, which he defined as "[the] fundamental factor operative towards the creation of wholes in the universe" in his 1926 book, "
and Evolution". Smuts' formulation of
has been linked with his political-military activity, especially his aspiration to create a league of nations. As one biographer said:
A contrast to the reductionist approach is
is the idea that things can have properties, (emergent properties), as a whole that are not explainable from the sum of their parts. The principle of
was concisely summarized by Aristotle in the Metaphysics: "The whole is more than the sum of its parts".
M'Pherson concluded that reductionism and
don't have to contradict, but that "philosophy, theories and methods in systems science and systems philosophy offer a means for bringing reductionism and
into a satisfactory alliance."
In the epistemology of science, confirmation
, also called epistemological
, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory).
The concept of
played a pivotal role in Baruch Spinoza's philosophy
, and it argues for the intrinsic value inherent in collective
The perspectives of
and unity are central to the worldview of transpersonal psychology.
Fodor has made many and varied criticisms of
. He identifies the central problem with all the different notions of
as the idea that the determining factor in semantic evaluation is the notion of an "epistemic bond". Briefly, P is an epistemic bond of Q if the meaning of P is considered by someone to be relevant for the determination of the meaning of Q. Meaning
strongly depends on this notion. The identity of the content of a mental state, under
, can only be determined by the "totality" of its epistemic bonds. And this makes the realism of mental states an impossibility:
1. Smuts, J C.
and Evolution. New York, NY: The Macmillan Co; 1926.
was espoused by David Bohm in his theory on the implicate and explicate order.
After identifying the need for reform in the fundamental concepts of matter, life and mind (chapter 1) Smuts examines the reformed concepts (as of 1926) of space and time (chapter 2), matter (chapter 3) and biology (chapter 4) and concludes that the close approach to each other of the concepts of matter, life and mind, and the partial overflow of each other's domain, implies that there is a fundamental principle (
) of which they are the progressive outcome. Chapters 5 and 6 provide the general concept, functions and categories of
; chapters 7 and 8 address
with respect to Mechanism and Darwinism, chapters 9-11 make a start towards demonstrating the concepts and functions of
for the metaphysical categories (mind, personality, ideals) and the book concludes with a chapter that argues for the universal ubiquity of
and its place as a monistic ontology.
Erickson, H. (2007) Philosophy and theory of
, Nursing clinics of North America, Vol. 42 (2), pp. 139–163.
A "rough and provisional" summary of the progressive grading of wholes that comprise
is as follows:
Copyright © 2017