Synonyms for hsdd or Related words with hsdd
Examples of "hsdd"
There are some factors that are believed to be possible causes of
in women. As with men, various medical problems, psychiatric problems (such as mood disorders), or increased amounts of prolactin can cause
. Other hormones are believed to be involved as well. Additionally, factors such as relationship problems or stress are believed to be possible causes of reduced sexual desire in women. According to one recent study examining the affective responses and attentional capture of sexual stimuli in women with and without
, women with
do not appear to have a negative association to sexual stimuli, but rather a weaker positive association than women without
Low sexual desire alone is not equivalent to
because of the requirement in
that the low sexual desire causes marked distress and interpersonal difficulty and because of the requirement that the low desire is not better accounted for by another disorder in the DSM or by a general medical problem. It is therefore difficult to say exactly what causes
. It is easier to describe, instead, some of the causes of low sexual desire.
Flibanserin was originally developed as an antidepressant, before being repurposed for the treatment of
, as currently defined by the DSM has come under criticism of the social function of the diagnosis.
There are various subtypes.
can be general (general lack of sexual desire) or situational (still has sexual desire, but lacks sexual desire for current partner), and it can be acquired (
started after a period of normal sexual functioning) or lifelong (the person has always had no/low sexual desire.)
In men, though there are theoretically more types of
/low sexual desire, typically men are only diagnosed with one of three subtypes.
There is some evidence that buspirone on its own may be useful in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (
) in women.
has garnered much criticism, primarily by asexual activists. They point out that
puts asexuality in the same position homosexuality was from 1974-1987. The DSM at that time recognised 'ego-dystonic homosexuality' as a disorder, defined as sexual interest in the same sex that caused significant distress. The DSM itself officially recognized this as unnecessarily pathologizing homosexuality and removed it as a disorder in 1987.
, like many sexual dysfunctions, is something that people are treated for in the context of a relationship. Theoretically, one could be diagnosed with, and treated for,
without being in a relationship. However, relationship status is the most predictive factor accounting for distress in women with low desire and distress is required for a diagnosis of
. Therefore, it is common for both partners to be involved in therapy. Typically, the therapist tries to find a psychological or biological cause of the
. If the
is organically caused, the clinician may try to deal with that. If the clinician believes it is rooted in a psychological problem, they may recommend therapy for that. If not, treatment generally focuses more on relationship and communication issues, improved communication (verbal and nonverbal), working on non-sexual intimacy, or education about sexuality may all be possible parts of treatment. Sometimes problems occur because people have unrealistic perceptions about what normal sexuality is and are concerned that they do not compare well to that, and this is one reason why education can be important. If the clinician thinks that part of the problem is a result of stress, techniques may be recommended to more effectively deal with that. Also, it can be important to understand why the low level of sexual desire is a problem for the relationship because the two partners may associate different meaning with sex but not know it.
A few studies suggest that the antidepressant, bupropion, can improve sexual function in women who are not depressed, if they have
. The same is true for the anxiolytic, buspirone, which is a 5-HT receptor agonist similarly to flibanserin.
Bremelanotide (tentative brand name Rekynda), a melanocortin receptor agonist, has successfully completed phase III clinical trials for the treatment of
. A New Drug Application is expected to be filed in the latter half of 2017.
In the case of men, the therapy may depend on the subtype of
. Increasing the level of sexual desire of a man with lifelong/generalized
is unlikely. Instead the focus may be on helping the couple to adapt. In the case of acquired/generalized, it is likely that there is some biological reason for it and the clinician may attempt to deal with that. In the case of acquired/situational, some form of psychotherapy may be used, possibly with the man alone and possibly together with his partner.
The current framework for
is based on a linear model of human sexual response, developed by Masters and Johnson and modified by Kaplan consisting of desire, arousal, orgasm. The sexual dysfunctions in the DSM are based around problems at any one or more of these stages. Many of the criticisms of the DSM-IV framework for sexual dysfunction in general, and
in particular, claimed that this model ignored the differences between male and female sexuality. Several criticisms were based on inadequacy of the DSM-IV framework for dealing with female's sexual problems.
The second Sexual Desire Disorder in the DSM is Sexual Aversion Disorder (SAD). SAD is defined as “persistent or recurrent extreme aversion to, and avoidance of, all or almost all, genital sexual contact with a sexual partner”. However, some have questioned the placement of SAD within the sexual dysfunction category of the DSM and have called for its placement within the Specific phobia grouping as an Anxiety Disorder. Both
and SAD has been found to be more prevalent in females than males, this is especially the case in SAD. However, on a spectrum of severity,
would be considered less severe than SAD.
Though it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between these types, they do not necessarily have the same cause. The cause of lifelong/generalized
is unknown. In the case of acquired/generalized low sexual desire, possible causes include various medical/health problems, psychiatric problems, low levels of testosterone or high levels of prolactin. One theory suggests that sexual desire is controlled by a balance between inhibitory and excitatory factors. This is thought to be expressed via neurotransmitters in selective brain areas. A decrease in sexual desire may therefore be due to an imbalance between neurotransmitters with excitatory activity like dopamine and norepinephrine and neurotransmitters with inhibitory activity, like serotonin. The, New York-based, "New View Campaign" organization has expressed skepticism about too much emphasis on explanations based on neurotransmitters because emphasis on such explanations have been made largely by "educational" efforts funded by Boehringer-Ingelheim while it was attempting to get the FDA to approve a drug affecting neurotransmitters for treatment for
. Low sexual desire can also be a side effect of various medications. In the case of acquired/situational
, possible causes include intimacy difficulty, relationship problems, sexual addiction, and chronic illness of the man’s partner. The evidence for these is somewhat in question. Some claimed causes of low sexual desire are based on empirical evidence. However, some are based merely on clinical observation. In many cases, the cause of
is simply unknown.
There is significant debate over whether or not asexuality is a sexual orientation. It has been compared and equated with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (
), in that both imply a general lack of sexual attraction to anyone;
has been used to medicalize asexuality, but asexuality is generally not considered a disorder or a sexual dysfunction (such as anorgasmia, anhedonia, etc.), because it does not necessarily define someone as having a medical problem or problems relating to others socially. Unlike people with
, asexual people normally do not experience "marked distress" and "interpersonal difficulty" concerning feelings about their sexuality, or generally a lack of sexual arousal; asexuality is considered the lack or absence of sexual attraction as a life-enduring characteristic. One study found that, compared to
subjects, asexuals reported lower levels of sexual desire, sexual experience, sex-related distress and depressive symptoms. Researchers Richards and Barker report that asexuals do not have disproportionate rates of alexithymia, depression, or personality disorders. Some people, however, may identify as asexual even if their non-sexual state is explained by one or more of the aforementioned disorders.
Flibanserin is the first and only medication approved for the treatment of
. It is only slightly effective over placebo, having been found to increase the average number of satisfying sexual events per month by 0.5 to 1. The side effects of dizziness, sleepiness, and nausea occur about three to four times more often. Overall improvement is slight to none.
A specific function for the straight gyrus has not yet been brought to light; however, in males, greater activation of the straight gyrus within the medial orbitofrontal cortex while observing sexually visual pictures has been strongly linked to
(hypoactive sexual desire disorder).
Positive results of bremelanotide in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (
) in two late-stage phase III clinical trials were announced by Palatin Technologies in November 2016. The company is expected to file a New Drug Application(NDA) for bremelanotide for this indication in the United States in the second half of 2017.
was recognized as a distinct sexual function disorder for more than 30 years, but was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013, and replaced with a new diagnosis called female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD).
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