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was a 13th-century French Dominican theologian and philosopher who served as lector at the "studium provinciale" at Santa Sabina, the forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, "Angelicum". In 1294 he was raised to the Cardinalate.
(1230, Billom – 28 December 1297, Rome) was a French Cardinal. He was also known as Hughes of Billom (also Billo or Billay), Ugo Billomo, Hughes Séguin, Ugo Seguin de Billon, Hughes Aycelin de Montaigut and Hugues Séguin de Billon.
Both Adam de Darlington and Thomas de Dundee resigned their rights to this episcopal see, but nevertheless Cardinal
used his influence to secure Thomas papal provision as bishop on 18 November. In the following year Adam de Darlington was compensated by being appointed Bishop of Caithness, the bishopric which adjoined Ross to the north.
On December 23, 1294, the cardinals assembled in the Castel Nuovo at Naples for the election of the successor of Celestine V. On the next day, Christmas Eve, Cardinal Benedetto Caetani received the required two-thirds majority and took the name of Boniface VIII. Caetani's nephew, who was an eyewitness, says that Caetani was elected after one scrutiny and an "accessio": "scrutinio accessioneque eligitur". Soon after his election he returned to Rome, where on January 23, 1295, he was consecrated to the episcopate by Cardinal
of Ostia, and crowned by Matteo Rosso Orsini, who was "prior Diaconorum" of the Sacred College.
In 1295 he is found at the papal court acting as the "commensalis" ("table companion") and chaplain of Cardinal
(Hugh Seguin), the Dominican Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia. Hugh was probably making use of Dundee's training as a lawyer. At this time Thomas is said to be Dean of Brechin Cathedral. The last known dean, William, is attested in 1269, and another dean was in possession by 24 May 1275, but the name of this dean is not known. This person is probably not Thomas as it is unlikely that he was Dean of Brechin and Subdean of Glasgow at the same time.
He did however obtain a bishopric, becoming Bishop of Caithness. On 26 April 1296, as Precentor of Ross he was provided to the Caithness diocese, vacant since the death of Alan de St Edmund in 1291, and consecrated by
, Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia. He was not to be bishop long however, perhaps not even long enough to visit his new bishopric. He died at Siena some time before 17 December 1296, when Andrew, Abbot of Coupar Angus, was provided to the now vacant see of Caithness.
All 22 living cardinals participated in the conclave; 12 of them were created by Celestine V, five by Nicholas IV, two by Nicholas III, one by Urban IV and one by Honorius IV:
, also known as Hughes of Billom, of the French province of the Dominican Order, former lector at the "studium" of Santa Sabina in Rome, was made Cardinal-Bishop of the suburbicarian see of Ostia in 1294; as Bishop of Ostia he had the right to ordain and consecrate the new bishop of Rome, Pope Boniface VIII. The consecration and coronation took place on 23 January 1295.
The Papal conclave, 1294 began on 23 December, ten days after Celestine's resignation. The regulations promulgated by Pope Gregory X at the Second Council of Lyon of 1274 did not envision a papal resignation, but the cardinals waited the usual ten days from the papal resignation. All twenty-two cardinals were thus given the chance to assemble at the Castel Nuovo in Naples, the site of the resignation.
, presided over the papal conclave as the senior cardinal bishop. Benedetto Caetani was elected by ballot and accession on Christmas Eve, 24 December 1294, taking the name Boniface VIII. On the first (secret) ballot, he had a majority of the votes, and at the "accessio" a sufficient number joined his majority to form the required two-thirds. He was consecrated bishop of Rome in Rome by Cardinal
on 23 January 1295. He immediately returned the Papal Curia to Rome, where he was crowned at the Vatican Basilica on Sunday, 23 January 1295. One of his first acts as pontiff was to grant his predecessor residence in the Castle of Fumone in Ferentino, where he died the next year at the age of 81, attended by two monks of his order. Boniface VIII is occasionally discussed in academic literature as possibly implicated in the demise of his predecessor. In 1300, Boniface VIII formalized the custom of the Roman Jubilee, which afterwards became a source of both profit and scandal to the church. Boniface VIII founded Sapienza University of Rome in 1303.
After the departure of Aquinas for Paris in 1268 other lectors at the Santa Sabina "studium" include
. Eventually some of the pedagogical activities of the Santa Sabina "studium" were transferred to a new convent of the Order more centrally located at the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. This convent had a modest beginning in 1255 as a community for women converts, but grew rapidly in size and importance during its transfer to the Dominicans from 1265 to 1275. In 1288 the theology component of the provincial curriculum was relocated from the Santa Sabina "studium provinciale" to the "studium conventuale" at Santa Maria sopra Minerva which was redesignated as a "studium particularis theologiae". During this period lectors at the Santa Maria sopra Minerva "studium" included Niccolò da Prato, Bartolomeo da San Concordio, and Matteo Orsini.
In 1352 as an expression of the Dominican intellectual vocation Tommaso was commissioned to paint a fresco cycle of 40 Dominicans scholars at their desks including Popes, Cardinals, theologians, and philosophers. The work is in the chapter room of the former Dominican convent of San Nicolo' at Treviso, now a seminary. Among others, the cycle portrays Cardinal Annibale Annibaldi, Doctor of the Church Thomas Aquinas, Cardinal
, and Cardinal Latino Malabranca Orsini, all of whom were professors of the Dominican "studium" at Santa Sabina the forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, "Angelicum", as well as Bishop and Doctor of the Church Albert the Great founder of the Dominican "studium" at Cologne, and renowned biblical commentator Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher. The portrait of Saint-Cher is the earliest known depiction of a person wearing spectacles.
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