Synonyms for humean or Related words with humean
Examples of "humean"
Much of Millican's other research, while not itself historical, has focused on
topics such as induction, probability, and philosophy of religion, but also on philosophy of language. His most significant non-
papers are on the logic of definite descriptions (1990), the morality of abortion (1992), and Anselm's Ontological Argument (2004).".
A variety of early thinkers in the humanistic sciences took up Hume's direction. Adam Smith, for example, conceived of economics as a moral science in the
Due to Hume's vast influence on contemporary philosophy, a large number of approaches in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science are today called "
Some of Platts's work has been highly influential. He is well known for his criticisms of the
theory of motivation and is considered an "Anti-
" (along with philosophers like John McDowell). This issue has generated a large body of research in the late 20th century. For example, Michael Smith discusses Platts's Anti-Humeanism at length in his influential book "The Moral Problem" (1994), which won the Book Prize of the American Philosophical Association in 2000.
Street's work has been particularly influential in the fields of metaethics and normative ethics, in particular defending a form of ethical subjectivism referred to as "
Constructivism", a term she uses to differentiate her work from the "Kantian Constructivism" of her mentor, Christine Korsgaard. Alongside working on a positive account of
Constructivism, Street's work has been influential in criticising naturalist and non-naturalist accounts of moral realism, as well as quasi-realist and theist metaethical positions.
At least two different causal paradigms in biomedicine have been identified – the
, linear, mono-factorial paradigm championed mainly in clinical medicine; and the non-linear, reciprocal, multi-factorial paradigm invoked in epidemiology.
McDowell also here departs from the standard interpretation of the
theory of how action is motivated. The
claims that any intentional action, hence any moral action, is motivated by a combination of two mental states, one a belief and one a desire. The belief functions as a passive representation; the desire functions to supply the distinctively motivational part of the combination. On the basis of his account of the virtuous moral agent, McDowell follows Thomas Nagel in rejecting this account as inaccurate: it is more truthful to say that in the case of a moral action, the virtuous agent's perception of the circumstances (that is, her belief) itself justifies both the action and the desire. For example, we cannot understand the desire, as a
original existence, without relating it back to the circumstances that impinged on the agent and made her feel compelled to act. So while the
thesis may be a truth about explanation it is not true about the structure of justification and it ought to be replaced by Nagel's motivated desire theory as set out in his "The Possibility of Altruism" (Oxford University Press, 1970).
A matter of fact, in the
sense, is the type of knowledge that can be characterized as arising out of one's interaction with and experience in the external world (as compared to a Relation of Ideas). In a Kantian framework, it is equivalent to the synthetic a posteriori.
Smith later goes on to give an anti-
account of normative reasons. He thus claims to solve the moral problem by giving an account of moral judgments in terms of what one would desire if one were fully rational. As such, he attempts to maintain a form of moral realism while still accounting for the motivational force of moral judgments.
Tiberius's work has focused on ethics and moral psychology, with a special interest in applying
principles to modern philosophical questions. Much of her work is centered at the junction of practical philosophy and practical psychology, examining how both disciplines can meaningfully improve lives. Much of her work takes a non-traditional empirical approach to traditional philosophical questions.
Mark de Bretton Platts (born 1947) is a philosopher at the Instituto de Investigaciones Filosóficas de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Institute for Philosophical Investigation, National Autonomous University of Mexico). He is well known for criticizing the
theory of motivation, especially in his book "Ways of Meaning" (1979/1997).
In the three volumes, Priestley discusses, among many other works, Baron d'Holbach's "Systeme de la Nature". He claimed that d'Holbach's "energy of nature," though it lacked intelligence or purpose, was really a description of God. Priestley believed that David Hume's style in the "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion" (1779) was just as dangerous as its ideas; he feared the open-endedness of the
In 2000, Smith's book "The Moral Problem" (1994) received The American Philosophical Association's first APA Book Prize for excellence in scholarship. Smith is considered to be one of the most important philosophers working in meta-ethics, and is one of the main proponents of a Neo-
approach to practical reason.
According to C. E. Pulos's 1954 book "The Deep Truth: A Study of Shelley's Scepticism", Drummond uses Sceptical
ideas in an attempt to refute the British philosophy predominant in his day, the Common Sense ideas of Thomas Reid and his followers. These had been enunciated first in Reid's "An Enquiry into the Human Mind" (1765).
Shahrar Ali has degrees in biochemical engineering (BEng) and philosophy (BA, MPhil, PhD) from the University of London. His 1997 MPhil thesis was on 'Practical reason with reference to the
conception', and his 2004 PhD thesis (UCL) entitled 'Making as if to stand behind one's words: a theory of intentional deception and lying'. His research interests are in moral and applied philosophy.
Relation of Ideas, in the
sense, is the type of knowledge that can be characterized as arising out of pure conceptual thought and logical operations (in contrast to a Matter of Fact). For instance, in mathematics: 8 x 10 = 80. Or in Logic: All islands are surrounded by water (by definition).
The philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, following Hume and Johann Georg Hamann, a
scholar, agrees with Hume's definition of a miracle as a transgression of a law of nature, but Kierkegaard, writing as his pseudonym "Johannes Climacus", regards any historical reports to be less than certain, including historical reports of miracles, as all historical knowledge is always doubtful and open to approximation.
Philosophers who subscribe to this theory include Sydney Shoemaker, Stephen Mumford, Alexander Bird, George Molnar, Brian Ellis, C.B. Martin and John Heil. Dispositionalism is offered as an alternative to other accounts of laws of nature including neo-
regularity theories and relations-between-universals theory of David Malet Armstrong, Fred Dretske, and Michael Tooley.
Whereas David Hume argued that causes are inferred from non-causal observations, Immanuel Kant claimed that people have innate assumptions about causes. Within psychology, Patricia Cheng (1997) attempted to reconcile the
and Kantian views. According to her power PC theory, people filter observations of events through a basic belief that causes have the power to generate (or prevent) their effects, thereby inferring specific cause-effect relations.
This evidently presupposes the internalist theory of motivation (i.e. a belief can itself motivate), in contrast to the externalist theory of motivation, also known as the
theory of motivation (i.e. both a belief and a desire are required to motivate). If internalism is true, then the OQA avoids begging the question against the naturalist, and succeeds in showing that the good cannot be equated to some other property.
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