Synonyms for hyperarousal or Related words with hyperarousal
Examples of "hyperarousal"
is defined by increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, in response to threat. Physiological
is unique to anxiety disorders. Some symptoms of physiological
include: shortness of breath, feeling dizzy or lightheaded, dry mouth, trembling or shaking, and sweaty palms.
Compared to negative affect and positive affect, physiological
has been studied less. Chorpita et al. (2000), proposed an affect and arousal scale in order to measure the tripartite factors of emotion in children and adolescents. In this study, physiological
was positively correlated with negative affect but not positive affect. This supports the tripartite model hypothesis, that physiological
will distinguish anxiety from depression, which is related to positive affect.Another study by Joiner et al. (1999), analyzed the construct validity of physiological
. Data was collected from samples of psychotherapy outpatients, air force cadets, and undergraduate students. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that psychological
is a reliable, replicable, valid, and discriminable construct.
Roth is currently semi-retired, but continues research work on the psychophysiology of
and posttraumatic stress disorder, as well as ambulatory monitoring of sleep.
Jonathan Shay makes an explicit connection between the berserker rage of soldiers and the
of post-traumatic stress disorder. In "Achilles in Vietnam", he writes:
Hypervigilance is differentiated from dysphoric
in that the person remains cogent and aware of their surroundings. In dysphoric
, the PTSD victim may lose contact with reality and re-experience the traumatic event verbatim. Where there have been multiple traumas, a person may become hypervigilant and suffer severe anxiety attacks intense enough to induce a delusional state where the effects of related traumas overlap. This can result in the thousand-yard stare.
The indicated hedonistic objective is best served by selective exposure to material that (a) is excitationally opposite to prevailing states associated with noxiously experienced hypo- or
, (b) has positive hedonic value above that of prevailing states, and (c) in hedonically negative states, has little or no semantic affinity with the prevailing states.
Watson and Clark (1991) proposed the Tripartite Model of Anxiety and Depression to help explain the comorbidity between anxious and depressive symptoms and disorders. This model divides the symptoms of anxiety and depression into three groups: negative affect, positive affect and physiological
. These three sets of symptoms help explain common and distinct aspects of depression and anxiety.
A treatment that has been found beneficial in dealing with the symptoms associated with complicated grief is the use of serotonin specific reuptake inhibitors such as Paroxetine. These inhibitors have been found to reduce intrusive thoughts, avoidant behaviors, and
that are associated with complicated grief. In addition psychotherapy techniques are in the process of being developed.
When battered person syndrome (BPS) manifests as PTSD, it consists of the following symptoms: (a) re-experiencing the battering as if it were recurring even when it is not, (b) attempts to avoid the psychological impact of battering by avoiding activities, people, and emotions, (c)
or hypervigilance, (d) disrupted interpersonal relationships, (e) body image distortion or other somatic concerns, and (f) sexuality and intimacy issues.
The sexual aspect of limerence is not consistent from person to person. Most limerents experience limerent sexuality as a component of romantic interest. Some limerents, however, may experience limerence as a consequence of
. In such cases, limerence may form as a defense mechanism against the limerent object, who is not perceived initially as a romantic ideal, but as a physical threat to the limerent.
People with discontinuation syndrome have been on an antidepressant for at least four weeks and have recently stopped taking the medication, either abruptly or after a fast taper. Common symptoms include flu-like symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, sweating), sleep disturbances (insomnia, nightmares, constant sleepiness), sensory/movement disturbances (imbalance, tremors, vertigo, dizziness, electric-shock-like experiences), mood disturbances (dysphoria, anxiety, agitation) and cognitive disturbances (confusion and
). Over fifty symptoms have been reported.
An alternative explanation also based on opioid antagonist studies states that kleptomania is similar to the "self-medication" model, in which stealing stimulates the person’s natural opioid system. "The opioid release 'soothes' the patients, treats their sadness, or reduces their anxiety. Thus, stealing is a mechanism to relieve oneself from a chronic state of
, perhaps produced by prior stressful or traumatic events, and thereby modulate affective states."
Furthermore, neuropsychiatry, physiological, and imaging studies have shown PTSD and depression to be physical syndromes, in many respects, as they are psychiatric ones in demonstrating limbic system physiological and anatomy disturbances. Attendant PTSD
symptoms, which additionally increase physiological stress, may play a part in leading to frequent MH-like hyperpyrexia and speculate on its influence on underlying myopathology of FSS in other ways. PTSD may also bring about developmental delays or developmental stagnation, especially in paediatric patients.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that may develop after a person experiences a traumatic event. Many people with PTSD relive or re-experience a traumatic event; memories of the event can appear at any time and the person feels the same fear/horror as when the event occurred. These can be either in the form of nightmares and/or flashbacks. Those with PTSD also have
(fight-or-flight) and can be too alert to go to sleep. Due to this, many experience some form of insomnia.
People with discontinuation syndrome have been on an antidepressant for at least four weeks and have recently stopped taking the medication, whether abruptly, after a fast taper, or each time the medication is reduced on a slow taper. Commonly reported symptoms include flu-like symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, sweating) and sleep disturbances (insomnia, nightmares, constant sleepiness). Sensory and movement disturbances have also been reported, including imbalance, tremors, vertigo, dizziness, and electric-shock-like experiences in the brain, often described by sufferers as "brain zaps". Mood disturbances such as dysphoria, anxiety, or agitation are also reported, as are cognitive disturbances such as confusion and
Posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is among the most common individual diagnoses linked to traumatic exposure in military or first responder service. PTSD is related to anxiety disorders, and is linked to the intrusive and unwanted re-experiencing of traumatic events. Those suffering from PTSD will often seek to avoid and may be triggered by stimuli that cause recollection of their traumatic exposures. Symptoms may include inability to sleep, anger, irritability, fear, hypervigilance, and
. A study of over 30,000 Canadian soldiers following deployments to Afghanistan and the former Yugoslavia found 8.9% of the study cohort to be suffering from PTSD after an average followup period of nearly four years.
One interpretation of Melinda's behavior is that it is symptomatic of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of her rape. Like other trauma survivors, Melinda's desire to both deny and proclaim what happened produces symptoms that both attract and deflect attention. Don Latham and Lisa DeTora both define Melinda's PTSD within the context of Judith Herman's three categories of classic PTSD symptoms: "
", "intrusion", and "constriction". Melinda displays
in her wariness of potential danger. Melinda will not go over to David's house after the basketball game, because she is afraid of what might happen. Intrusion is depicted in the rape's disruption of Melinda's consciousness. She tries to forget the event, but the memories keep resurfacing in her mind. Constriction is illustrated in Melinda's silence and withdrawal from society. Latham views Melinda's slow recovery as "queer" in its diversion from the normal treatment of trauma. Melinda's recovery comes as a result of her own efforts, without professional help. Further, DeTora notes the connection between trauma and "the unspeakable".
Two main models exists as to the mechanism of insomnia, the cognitive and physiological. The cognitive model suggests rumination and
prevent sleep and lead to an episode of insomnia. The physiological model is based upon three major findings in people with insomnia; firstly, increased urinary cortisol and catecholamines have been found suggesting increased activity of the HPA axis and arousal; second increased global cerebral glucose utilization during wakefulness and NREM sleep in people with insomnia; and lastly increased full body metabolism and heart rate in those with insomnia. All these findings taken together suggest a dysregulation of the arousal system, cognitive system and HPA axis all contributing to insomnia. However it is unknown if the
is a result of, or cause of insomnia. Altered levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA have been found, but the results have been inconsistent, and the implications of altered levels of such a ubiquitous neurotransmitter are unknown. Studies on wether or not insomnia is driven by circadian control over sleep or a wake dependent process have been inconsistent, but some literature suggests a dysregulation of the circadian rhythm based on core temperature. Increased beta activity and decreased delta wave activity has been observed on electroencephalograms, however the implication of this is unknown.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a cognitive disorder, which comes about after overcoming a traumatic event. It is a disease, which is extremely common to those participating in a sport at an elite level. When these athletes feel like they have come to the end of their journey as an athlete, and then try and slot themselves back into mainstream society, or after they have had to overcome a large hurdle within their chosen sport. These athletes develop feelings of alienation, depression, flashbacks or
, and generally become evident after a couple of months after stopping or after the specific event has concluded.
The fight-or-flight response (also called
, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival. It was first described by Walter Bradford Cannon. His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the animal for fighting or fleeing. More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine. The hormones estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, also affect how organisms react to stress.
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