Synonyms for hypercalcaemia or Related words with hypercalcaemia
Examples of "hypercalcaemia"
Abnormal heart rhythms can also result, and ECG findings of a short QT interval suggest
can cause ECG changes mimicking an acute myocardial infarction.
has also been known to cause an ECG finding mimicking hypothermia, known as an Osborn wave.
Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy account for about 90% of cases of
Hypersensitivity, use on face,
, or evidence of vitamin D toxicity are the only contraindications for calcipotriol use.
The goal of therapy is to treat the
first and subsequently effort is directed to treat the underlying cause.
Side effects from pharmaceutical therapy such as gastrointestinal disorders, e.g. nausea, constipation or diarrhoea may occur, as well as metabolism and nutritional disorders, e.g.
A hypercalcaemic crisis is an emergency situation with a severe
, generally above approximately 14 mg/dL (or 3.5 mmol/l).
Familial benign hypocalciuric
can present with similarly lab changes. In this condition the calcium creatinine clearance ratio; however, is typically under 0.01.
Bisphosphonates are used to treat osteoporosis, osteitis deformans (Paget's disease of the bone), bone metastasis (with or without
), multiple myeloma, and other conditions involving fragile, breakable bone.
Hyperparathyroidism results in
and its effects and in extreme bone wasting. Hypoparathyroidism leads to hypocalcaemia, evidenced by tetany seizure and respiratory paralysis.
Calcium oxalate stones form in an acidic to neutral urine. Two types naturally occur, calcium oxalate monohydrate, or whewellite (CaCO·HO), and calcium oxalate dihydrate, or weddellite (CaCO·2HO). Their appearance can be rough, smooth, spiculated (needle-like), or jackstone. Calcium oxalate stones form more readily in animals with
, which can caused by Addison's disease or certain types of cancer.
results in hypercalciuria, which can also be caused by Cushing's syndrome or hyperparathyroidism.
The uses of bisphosphonates include the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, bone metastasis (with or without
), multiple myeloma, primary hyperparathyroidism, osteogenesis imperfecta, fibrous dysplasia, and other conditions that exhibit bone fragility.
Aggressive surgical removal of the tumor and any enlarged sublumbar lymph nodes is essential for treatment of the tumor and associated
. There is a high recurrence rate, although removal of lymph nodes with metastasis may improve survival time. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be helpful in treatment. Severe
is treated with aggressive IV fluid therapy using sodium chloride and medications such as loop diuretics (increased kidney excretion of calcium) and aminobisphosphonates (decreased calcium release from bones). A poorer prognosis is associated with large tumor size (greater than 10 cm),
, and distante metastasis. Early, incidental diagnosis of small anal sac masses may lead to a better prognosis with surgery alone (ongoing study).
The neuromuscular symptoms of hypercalcemia are caused by a negative bathmotropic effect due to the increased interaction of calcium with sodium channels. Since calcium blocks sodium channels and inhibits depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers, increased calcium raises the threshold for depolarization. There is a general mnemonic for remembering the effects of
: "Stones, Bones, Groans, Thrones and Psychiatric Overtones"
Calcium phosphate, also known as hydroxyapatite (Ca(PO)(OH)), stones form in neutral to alkaline urine. They are usually smooth and round. Calcium phosphate is usually a component of struvite or calcium oxalate stones and is infrequently a pure stone. They form more readily with
. Dog breeds possibly predisposed to calcium phosphate stone formation include Yorkshire Terriers, Miniature Schnauzers, and Cocker Spaniels.
Thiazide diuretics increase the excretion of sodium and potassium ions and decrease the excretion of calcium ions and uric acid so they are contraindicated in patients with hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia,
and hyperuricaemia. They are also contraindicated in patients with Addison's disease.
Possible side effects include gastrointestinal problems, for example nausea and constipation. If very high doses are taken, signs of
(too high blood calcium levels) have been described, such as stomach pain, vomiting, thirst, and tiredness. Extreme or long-term or overdose can theoretically result in hypervitaminosis D, kidney stones, renal insufficiency and calcinosis.
Most cases are due to primary hyperparathyroidism or cancer. Other causes include sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Paget disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), vitamin D toxicity, familial hypocalciuric
, and certain medications such as lithium and hydrochlorothiazide. Diagnosis should generally include either a corrected calcium or ionized calcium level and be confirmed after a week. Specific changes may be seen on an electrocardiogram (ECG).
Electrolyte abnormalities (e.g.
and hyperphosphataemia) are common overdose symptoms. Treatment is mostly supportive, with particular attention being paid to correcting electrolyte anomalies and reducing intake of calcium in both the form of supplementation and diet. As it is so heavily bound to plasma proteins haemodialysis is unlikely to be helpful in cases of overdose.
There are a number of rare but well-described genetic conditions affecting parathyroid hormone metabolism, including pseudohypoparathyroidism, familial hypocalciuric
, and autosomal dominant hypercalciuric hypocalcaemia. In osteoporotic women, administration of an exogenous parathyroid hormone analogue (teriparatide, by daily injection) superimposed on estrogen therapy produced increases in bone mass and reduced vertebral and nonvertebral fractures by 45 to 65%.
Calcium gluconate side effects include nausea, constipation, upset stomach. Rapid intravenous injections of calcium gluconate may cause
, which can result in vasodilation, cardiac arrhythmias, decreased blood pressure, and bradycardia. Extravasation of calcium gluconate can lead to cellulitis. Intramuscular injections may lead to local necrosis and abscess formation.
Copyright © 2017