Synonyms for hypercortisolism or Related words with hypercortisolism

hypocortisolism              hyperinsulinism              hypotonia              hypokeratosis              hypereninemic              giantism              hyperpyrexia              hypertonia              hyperlysinemia              hyperexplexia              cushings              hypermetabolism              myoglobinuria              hyperargininemia              hypopituitarism              hyperprolactinemia              hypocholesterolemia              hyperammonemia              menoxenia              myopathic              hypermethioninemia              hydranencephaly              hypoaldosteronism              hyperaldosteronism              hypercalcaemia              homocysteinuria              hyperpotassemia              acromegaly              atransferrinemia              hyperornithinemia              hypocalcemia              hyperthyroidism              homocysteinemia              hypothyroidism              macrocephaly              hypophosphatemia              postperfusion              hypopituitary              ketonuria              hyperprolinemia              eclampsia              ohss              hyperfunction              lipodystrophia              postconcussion              nesidioblastosis              psychoorganic              hypokalemic              hyporeninemic              emaciation             

Examples of "hypercortisolism"
Hypercortisolism/ Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia/ Hirsutism
Cushing's disease refers only to hypercortisolism secondary to excess production of ACTH from a corticotroph pituitary adenoma (secondary hypercortisolism/hypercorticism) or due to excess production of hypothalamus CRH (Corticotropin releasing hormone) (tertiary hypercortisolism/hypercorticism). This causes the blood ACTH levels to be elevated along with cortisol from the adrenal gland. The ACTH levels remain high because the tumor is unresponsive to negative feedback from high cortisol levels.
Metyrapone (trade name Metopirone) is a drug used in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and occasionally in the treatment of Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism).
Cushing's disease is a cause of Cushing's syndrome characterised by increased secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary (secondary hypercortisolism). This is most often as a result of a pituitary adenoma (specifically pituitary basophilism) or due to excess production of hypothalamus CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) (tertiary hypercortisolism/hypercorticism) that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous Cushing's syndrome, when excluding Cushing's syndrome from exogenously administered corticosteroids.
Hypercortisolism, such as in Cushing's syndrome, also leads to central obesity. Many prescription drugs, such as dexamethasone and other steroids, can also have side effects resulting in central obesity, especially in the presence of elevated insulin levels.
Metyrapone is used for the medical control of hypercortisolism in Cushing's syndrome (ACTH dependent or independent). The aim for medical treatment is to achieve pre-operative control of hypercortisolism, or for control of residual disease persisting post-operatively (TSS, adrenalectomy). It is not for long term definitive treatment/cure, only as an adjunct (surgery is the aim for cure in most causes of Cushing's syndrome). Metyrapone hence acts by inhibiting adrenal steroidogenesis. One side effect is hirsutism (in women) because of the excess androgen precursors created. The other commonly used agent for medical treatment of Cushing's is ketoconazole (an anti-fungal agent). This does not exhibit the side effect of hirsutism.
The corticorelin stimulation test helps to differentiate between the etiologies of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent hypercortisolism. It is used to evaluate the status of the pituitary-adrenal axis in the differentiation of a pituitary source from an ectopic source of excessive ACTH secretion.
Mifepristone 300 mg tablets (Korlym) have a marketing authorization in the United States from the FDA for the medical treatment of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) caused by high cortisol levels in the blood (hypercortisolism) in adults with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome who have type 2 diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance and have failed surgery or cannot have surgery.
Mifepristone is used for the medical treatment of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) caused by high cortisol levels in the blood (hypercortisolism) in adults with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome who have type 2 diabetes mellitus or glucose intolerance and have failed surgery or cannot have surgery.
Bilateral adrenalectomy is another treatment which provides immediate reduction of cortisol level and control of hypercortisolism. However, it requires education of patients, because lifelong glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy is needed for these patients. One of the major complications of this treatment is progression of Nelson's syndrome which is caused by enhance level of tumor growth and ACTH secretion post adrenalectomy in 8%-29% of patients with CD.
Strictly, Cushing's syndrome refers to excess cortisol of any etiology (as syndrome means a group of symptoms). One of the causes of Cushing's syndrome is a cortisol-secreting adenoma in the cortex of the adrenal gland (primary hypercortisolism/hypercorticism). The adenoma causes cortisol levels in the blood to be very high, and negative feedback on the pituitary from the high cortisol levels causes ACTH levels to be very low.
Another diagnostic test used is the urinary free cortisol (UFC) test, which measures the excess cortisol excreted by the kidneys into the urine. Results of 4x higher cortisol levels than normal are likely to be Cushing's disease. This test should be repeated three times in order to exclude any normally occurring periods of hypercortisolism. The UFC test has a specificity of 81% and thus has a high rate of false-positives that are due to pseudo-Cushing states, sleep apnea, polycystic ovary syndrome, familial glucocorticoid resistance, and hyperthyroidism.
Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to a impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, cf. hypopituitarism) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone CRH). Conversely, chronically elevated ACTH levels occur in primary adrenal insufficiency (e.g. Addison's disease) when adrenal gland production of cortisol is chronically deficient. In Cushing's disease a pituitary tumor is the cause of elevated ACTH (from the anterior pituitary) and an excess of cortisol (hypercortisolism) – this constellation of signs and symptoms is known as Cushing's syndrome.
Symptoms include rapid weight gain, particularly of the trunk and face with sparing of the limbs (central obesity). Common signs include the growth of fat pads along the collarbone, on the back of the neck ("buffalo hump" or lipodystrophy), and on the face ("moon face"). Other symptoms include excess sweating, dilation of capillaries, thinning of the skin (which causes easy bruising and dryness, particularly the hands) and mucous membranes, purple or red striae (the weight gain in Cushing's syndrome stretches the skin, which is thin and weakened, causing it to hemorrhage) on the trunk, buttocks, arms, legs, or breasts, proximal muscle weakness (hips, shoulders), and hirsutism (facial male-pattern hair growth), baldness and/or extremely dry and brittle hair. In rare cases, Cushing's can cause hypocalcemia. The excess cortisol may also affect other endocrine systems and cause, for example, insomnia, inhibited aromatase, reduced libido, impotence in men, and amenorrhoea/oligomenorrhea and infertility in women due to elevations in androgens. Studies have also shown that the resultant amenorrhea is due to hypercortisolism, which feeds back onto the hypothalamus resulting in decreased levels of GnRH release.
The disease associated with this increased secretion of cortisol was described by the American neurosurgeon Harvey Cushing in 1912, after he was presented with a unique case of the disease in 1910 a 23-year-old woman called Minnie G. whose symptoms included painful obesity, amenorrhea, hypertrichosis (abnormal hair growth), underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics, hydrocephalus and cerebral tension. This combination of symptoms was not yet described by any medical disorder at the time. However, Cushing was confident that Minnie’s symptoms were due to dysfunction of the pituitary gland, and resembled those associated with an adrenal tumor. Given this conviction, and his knowledge of the three anterior pituitary cell types, Cushing hypothesized that if acidophil hyperpituitarism (excess secretion from the acidophil cells) caused acromegaly, then an excess of basophil cells must be involved in another pituitary disorder that involves sexual dysfunction (amenorrhea in females and erectile dysfunction in males) and could explain Minnie's symptoms. Experimental evidence and case reports by Cushing led to his publication in 1932 on pituitary basophilism as the cause of Cushing's disease. In this publication, the clinical symptoms of the disease, named after Cushing, were described. Out of the 12 cases with hypercortisolism described in Cushing’s monograph on the pituitary body, 67% died within a few years after symptom presentation, whereas Minnie G. survived for more than 40 years after symptom presentation, despite the fact that she did not receive any treatments for a pituitary tumor. The prolonged survival made Minnie's case unique at the time. The reason behind this survival remains a mystery, since an autopsy of Minnie was refused after her death. However, the most likely explanation, proposed by J. Aidan Carney and based on statistical evidence, was that the basophil adenoma Minnie might have harbored underwent partial infarction, leading to symptom regression. The other hypothesis was that Minnie might have suffered from Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD), which when associated with Cushing's syndrome (Carney complex) can infrequently cause spontaneous symptom regression of the latter.