Synonyms for hyperosmia or Related words with hyperosmia
Examples of "hyperosmia"
There has not been extensive research into environmental causes of
, but there are some theories of some possible causes.
is an increased olfactory acuity (heightened sense of smell), usually caused by a lower threshold for odor. This perceptual disorder arises when there is an abnormally increased signal at any point between the olfactory receptors and the olfactory cortex. The causes of
may be genetic, environmental or the result of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.
It has been observed that the inhalation of hydrocarbons can cause
, most likely due to the destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the olfactory bulb.
In a study by Atianjoh et al., it has been found that amphetamines decrease levels of dopamine in the olfactory bulbs of rodents. On this basis, it has been hypothesized that amphetamine use may cause
in rodents and humans, but further research is still needed. This theory is supported indirectly by the fact that patients with Parkinson's Disease have an increase in dopaminergic cells in the olfactory bulb and usually exhibit hyposmia. Anecdotal support for the belief that amphetamines may cause
comes from Oliver Sacks's account of a patient with a heightened sense of smell after taking amphetamines.
Methotrexate, administered in the treatment of psoriasis, has been known to cause
, and is more likely to do so in patients with a history of migraines. However, this is only an observation and not part of a study, therefore it is yet to be verified.
A related term, hyposmia, refers to a decreased ability to smell, while
refers to an increased ability to smell. Some people may be anosmic for one particular odor. This is known as "specific anosmia". The absence of the sense of smell from birth is called congenital anosmia.
Another study by Keller et al. has found that people with the intact human odorant receptor OR7D4 are more sensitive to androstenone and androstadienone and thus find them unpleasant (individuals with the semi-functional OR7D4 have two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the OR7D4 pseudogene, resulting in two amino acid substitutions). There has not yet been extensive research into the genetic background of those with general
, rather than for just a single odorant.
Normal olfactory acuity will usually return over time if the cause is environmental, even if it is untreated. The hyperosmic person may need to be removed from strong odorants for a period of time if the sensation becomes unbearable. Before they had been discontinued due to undesirable side effects, butyrophenones or thioridazine hydrochloride, both of which are dopamine antagonists, have been used to treat
A partial list of other symptoms patients have attributed to MCS include: difficulty breathing, pains in the throat, chest, or abdominal region, skin irritation, headaches, neurological symptoms (nerve pain, pins and needles feelings, weakness, trembling, restless leg syndrome), tendonitis, seizures, visual disturbances (blurring, halo effect, inability to focus), anxiety, panic and/or anger, sleep disturbance, suppression of immune system, digestive difficulties, nausea, indigestion/heartburn, vomiting, diarrhea, joint pains, vertigo/dizziness, abnormally acute sense of smell (
), sensitivity to natural plant fragrance or natural pine terpenes, dry mouth, dry eyes, and an overactive bladder.
Olfactory problems can be divided into different types based on their malfunction. The olfactory dysfunction can be total (anosmia), incomplete (partial anosmia, hyposmia, or microsmia), distorted (dysosmia), or can be characterized by spontaneous sensations like phantosmia. An inability to recognize odors despite a normally functioning olfactory system is termed olfactory agnosia.
is a rare condition typified by an abnormally heightened sense of smell. Like vision and hearing, the olfactory problems can be bilateral or unilateral meaning if a person has anosmia on the right side of the nose but not the left, it is a unilateral right anosmia. On the other hand, if it is on both sides of the nose it is called bilateral anosmia or total anosmia.
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