Synonyms for hypertalk or Related words with hypertalk
Examples of "hypertalk"
is a high-level, procedural programming language created in 1987 by Dan Winkler and used in conjunction with Apple Computer's HyperCard hypermedia program by Bill Atkinson. The main target audience of
was beginning programmers, hence
programmers were usually called authors, and the process of writing programs was called "scripting".
scripts are fairly similar to written English, and use a logic structure similar to that of the Pascal programming language.
Other models include
, Production Systems and Declarative Languages.
Many method names first popularized by
For most basic operations and mathematics,
tended to favor the natural-language ordering of predicates in a statement to that used in mathematical notation. For instance,
used the codice_1 assignment command that placed the variable at the end:
SuperTalk is the scripting language used in SuperCard. SuperTalk is a descendant of
HyperCard contains an object oriented scripting language called "
". Objects exist in a message path hierarchy and respond to messages generated by either the user or the system (timers for instance). Objects inherit properties and attributes from those above them in the hierarchy.
object classes are predetermined by the HyperCard environment, although others can be added by the use of externals (see below).
is verbose, hence its ease of use and readability.
code segments are referred to as "scripts", a term that was considered less daunting to beginning programmers.
Andrew Stone was a contributing author to the Waite Group’s "Tricks of the
code has the side-effect of creating the variable "theResult" on the fly. Scripts could assign any type or value to a variable using codice_1 -
was "very" weakly typed. Conversions between variable types were invisible and automatic; one can multiply the string "3" and the number 5 to produce the number 15, or concatenate the number 5 onto the string "3" to produce the string "35";
will not complain unless the types cannot be automatically converted.
Various scripting languages have taken their cues from
. They are commonly regrouped in a loosely defined family named xTalk:
Until 1989, SK8's scripting language was Lisp. This changed to SK8Script, which was heavily influenced by
(HT). Many of the differences between SK8Script and
can be considered to be generalization of HT concepts, removing tight integration with particular objects in the HyperCard universe and replacing them with generalized syntax that could interact with any object.
A wristwatch was the first wait cursor in early versions of the classic Mac OS. Apple's HyperCard first popularized animated cursors, including a black-and-white spinning quartered circle resembling a beach ball. The beach-ball cursor was also adopted to indicate running script code in the
-like AppleScript. The cursors could be advanced by repeated
invocations of "set cursor to busy".
A good example of this was the creation of new cards, which was part of the application, not directly accessible from the
language itself. A new card could only be created using the New Card menu item, which could be simulated in code usingcodice_55. While
called into menu commands, menu commands also invoked handlers in
. To run custom code when the Copy menu item was selected, one would place a script in the stack using the codice_56 handler, and then examine codice_57 to see if it was "Copy".
It combines database abilities with a graphical, flexible, user-modifiable interface. HyperCard also features
, a programming language for manipulating data and the user interface.
Ampersand is the string concatenation operator in many BASIC dialects, AppleScript, Lingo,
, and FileMaker. In Ada it applies to all one-dimensional arrays, not just strings.
supports most standard programming structures such as "if-then" and "repeat". The "if-then" structure is so flexible that it even allows "case" structured code.
Externals allow access to the Macintosh Toolbox, which contained many lower level commands and functions not native to
, such as control of the serial and ADB ports.
ActionScript is an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia Inc. (since merged into Adobe Systems). It is a derivation of
In the late 1980s Apple considered using HyperCard's
scripting language as the standard language across the company and within its classic Mac OS operating system, and for interprocess communication between Apple and non-Apple products. The company did not oppose the development of imitations like SuperCard, and created a
Standards Committee to avoid incompatibility between language variants. The case-insensitive language was interpreted at first, but gained just-in-time compilation with HyperCard 2.0.
One of the most powerful features SuperCard adds to the
language is "user properties". Where
had a fixed set of properties on its objects, SuperCard scripters can use the codice_1 command to add new properties to buttons and fields. These properties can contain arbitrary text (including numbers and object references, which are also represented using text in xTalks), and even dumps of entire files.
also provided script control over the built-in drawing tools, simply by scripting the needed changes in paint tools and simulating mouse movements using the codice_58 and the codice_59 commands.
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