Synonyms for hypogonadal or Related words with hypogonadal
Examples of "hypogonadal"
Clomifene is sometimes used in the treatment of male hypogonadism as an alternative to testosterone replacement therapy. It has been found to increase testosterone levels by 2- to 2.5-fold in
A study of high-dose combined intramuscular administration of 40 mg estradiol valerate and 250 mg hydroxyprogesterone caproate per week for six months (described as a "pseudopregnancy" regimen) in
women found that circulating levels of estradiol increased from 27.8–34.8 pg/mL to 3028–3226 pg/mL after three months and to 2491–2552 pg/mL after six months of treatment.
Menotropin preparations are designed for use in selected women where they stimulate the ovaries to mature follicles, thus making them more fertile. They are administered by typically daily injection, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, for about ten days under close supervision to adjust dose and duration of therapy. They can also be used in
men to stimulate sperm production.
Testosterone replacement therapy may improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in diabetic
men. The mechanisms by which testosterone decreases insulin resistance is under study. Moreover, testosterone may have a protective effect on pancreatic beta cells, which is possibly exerted by androgen-receptor-mediated mechanisms and influence of inflammatory cytokines.
Teriparatide was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 26 November 2002, for the treatment of osteoporosis in men and postmenopausal women who are at high risk for having a fracture. The drug is also approved to increase bone mass in men with primary or
osteoporosis who are at high risk for fracture.
Agonists do not quickly dissociate from the GnRH receptor. As a result, initially there is an increase in FSH and LH secretion (so-called "flare effect"). Levels of LH may increase by up to 10-fold. However, after about 10 to 20 days, a profound
effect (i.e. decrease in FSH and LH) is achieved through receptor downregulation by internalization of receptors. Generally this induced and reversible hypogonadism is the therapeutic goal.
A study of combined high-dose i.m. estradiol valerate and hydroxyprogesterone caproate in peri- and postmenopausal and
women (described as a "pseudopregnancy" regimen), with specific dosages of 40 mg weekly and 250 mg weekly, respectively, was found to result in serum estradiol levels of 3028–3226 pg/mL after three months and 2491–2552 pg/mL after six months of treatment from a baseline of 27.8–34.8 pg/mL.
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist, GnRH–A) is a synthetic peptide modeled after the hypothalamic neurohormone GnRH that interacts with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor to elicit its biologic response, the release of the pituitary hormones FSH and LH. However, after the initial "flare" response, continued stimulation with GnRH agonists desensitizes the pituitary gland (by causing GnRH receptor downregulation) to GnRH. Pituitary desensitization reduces the secretion of LH and FSH and thus induces a state of hypogonadotropic
anovulation, sometimes referred to as “pseudomenopause” or “medical oophorectomy.”
A single intramuscular injection of testosterone buciclate in an aqueous suspension has been found to produce physiological levels of testosterone within the normal range in
men for 3 to 4 months. The elimination half-life and mean residence time (average amount of time a single molecule of drug stays in the body) of testosterone buciclate were found to be 29.5 days and 60.0 days, respectively, whereas those of testosterone enanthate in castor oil were only 4.5 days and 8.5 days. Testosterone buciclate also lasts longer than testosterone undecanoate, which has elimination half-lives and mean residence times of 20.9 days and 34.9 days in tea seed oil and 33.9 days and 36.0 days in castor oil, respectively. In addition, there is a spike in testosterone levels with testosterone enanthate and testosterone undecanoate that is not seen with testosterone buciclate, with which levels stay highly uniform and decrease very gradually and progressively.
Teriparatide ( a recombinant parathyroid hormone ) has been shown to be effective in treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Some evidence also indicates strontium ranelate is effective in decreasing the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Hormone replacement therapy, while effective for osteoporosis, is only recommended in women who also have menopausal symptoms. Raloxifene, while effective in decreasing vertebral fractures, does not affect the risk of nonvertebral fracture. And while it reduces the risk of breast cancer, it increases the risk of blood clots and strokes. Denosumab is also effective for preventing osteoporotic fractures. In
men, testosterone has been shown to improve bone quantity and quality, but, as of 2008, no studies evaluated its effect on fracture risk or in men with a normal testosterone levels. Calcitonin while once recommended is no longer due to the associated risk of cancer with its use and questionable effect on fracture risk.
Testing serum LH and FSH levels are often used to assess hypogonadism in women, particularly when menopause is believed to be happening. These levels change during a woman's normal menstrual cycle, so the history of having ceased menstruation coupled with high levels aids the diagnosis of being menopausal. Commonly, the post-menopausal woman is not called
if she is of typical menopausal age. Contrast with a young woman or teen, who would have hypogonadism rather than menopause. This is because hypogonadism is an abnormality, whereas menopause is a normal change in hormone levels. In any case, the LH and FSH levels will rise in cases of primary hypogonadism or menopause, while they will be low in women with secondary or tertiary hypogonadism.
Estrogen (American English) or oestrogen (British English) is the primary female sex hormone as well as a medication. It is responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. "Estrogen" may also refer to any substance, natural or synthetic, that mimics the effects of the natural hormone. The estrane steroid estradiol is the most potent and prevalent endogenous estrogen, although several metabolites of estradiol also have estrogenic hormonal activity. Estrogens are used as medications as part of some oral contraceptives, in hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal,
, and transgender women, and in the treatment of certain hormone-sensitive cancers like prostate cancer and breast cancer. They are one of three types of sex hormones, the others being androgens/anabolic steroids like testosterone and progestogens like progesterone.
'Depot' drug formulations are created by mixing a substance with the drug that slows its release and prolongs the action of the drug. The two primarily used forms in the United States are the testosterone esters testosterone cypionate (Depo-Testosterone) and testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) which are almost interchangeable. Testosterone enanthate is purported to be slightly better with respect to even testosterone release, but this is probably more of a concern for bodybuilders who use the drugs at higher doses (250–1000 mg/week) than the replacement doses used by transgender men (50–100 mg/week). These testosterone esters are mixed with different oils, so some individuals may tolerate one better than the other. Testosterone enanthate costs more than testosterone cypionate and is more typically the one prescribed for
males in the United States. Testosterone cypionate is more popular in the United States than elsewhere (especially amongst bodybuilders). Other formulations exist but are more difficult to come by in the United States. A formulation of injected testosterone available in Europe and the United States, testosterone undecanoate (Nebido, Aveed) provides significantly improved testosterone delivery with far less variation outside the eugonadal range than other formulations with injections required only four times yearly. However, each quarterly dose requires injection of 4 mL of oil which may require multiple simultaneous injections. Testosterone undecanoate is also much more expensive as it is still under patent protection. Testosterone propionate is another testosterone ester that is widely available, including in the United States, Canada, and Europe, but it is very short-acting compared to the other testosterone ethers and must be administered once every 2 or 3 days, and for this reason, is rarely used.
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