Synonyms for hypogonadotrophic or Related words with hypogonadotrophic
Examples of "hypogonadotrophic"
The genetics of Kallmann syndrome and other forms of
hypogonadism is still far from clear with around 70% of cases having an unknown genetic origin.
Weekly clinic provides guidance and support to patients with reproductive health and currently has 200 patients enrolled. It offers diagnostic and treatment facilities like induction of puberty in
hypogonadism, evaluation of infertility, workup of Polycystic ovarian syndrome.
The symptoms of
hypogonadism, a subtype of hypogonadism, include late, incomplete or lack of development at puberty, and sometimes short stature or the inability to smell; in females, a lack of breasts and menstrual periods, and in males a lack of sexual development, e.g., facial hair, penis and testes enlargement, deepening voice.
A 2007 paper proposed a possible digenic model for Kallmann syndrome and other forms of
hypogonadism. The possibility of two separate gene defects working in combination could account for some of the variation of symptoms seen in cases of Kallmann syndrome, even within families.
For example, the male mutation of the GnRH coding gene could result in
hypogonadism. A mutation that cause a gain of function for LH receptor can result in a condition known as testotoxicosis, which cause puberty to occur between ages 2–3 years. Loss of function of LH receptors can cause male pseudohermaphroditism. In females mutations would have analogous effects. Hormone replacement can be used to initiate puberty and continue if the gene mutation occurs in the gene coding for the hormone. Chromosomal mutations tend to affect the androgen production rather than the HPG axis.
Aside from the skin scaling, XLI is not typically associated with other major medical problems. Corneal opacities may be present but do not affect vision. Cryptorchidism is reported in some individuals. Some individuals can also be seen to have an intellectual disability, this is thought to be due to deletions encompassing neighboring genes in addition to "STS". Larger deletions that include the "SHOX" gene can result in short stature, while deletions that include the "KAL1" gene lead to
hypogonadism as seen in Kallmann syndrome.
Kisspeptin (formerly known as metastin) is a protein that is encoded by the "KISS1" gene in humans. Kisspeptin is a G-protein coupled receptor ligand for GPR54. "Kiss1" was originally identified as a human metastasis suppressor gene that has the ability to suppress melanoma and breast cancer metastasis. Kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling has an important role in initiating secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at puberty, the extent of which is an area of ongoing research. The release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone is due to an action on the anterior pituitary and also involves the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). These gonadotropic hormones lead to sexual maturation and gametogenesis. Disrupting GPR54 signaling can cause
hypogonadism in rodents and man. The Kiss1 gene is located on chromosome 1. It is transcribed in the brain, adrenal gland, and pancreas.
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