Synonyms for iels or Related words with iels
Examples of "iels"
The Integrated Electronic Litigation System (
) or eLitigation (eLit) is an initiative by the Singapore Judiciary to replace the existing Electronic Filing System (EFS) which has been in use since 2000. EFS was conceived and developed in the mid- to late-1990s, and
represents the second phase in implementing technology to enhance the litigation process in Singapore.
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are lymphocytes found in the epithelial layer of mammalian mucosal linings, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and reproductive tract. However, unlike other T cells,
do not need priming. Upon encountering antigens, they immediately release cytokines and cause killing of infected target cells. In the GI tract, they are components of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).
Increased numbers of
are reported in around 3% of in duodenal biopsies, depending on case mix, but may be increasingly being found, in up to 7%. The differential diagnosis of possible causes is wide, especially suggesting coeliac disease, but also includes environmental enteropathy (tropical sprue), autoimmune enteropathy, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, NSAID damage, "Helicobacter pylori" and other infections and Crohn's disease.
Alternatively, elevated IEL populations can be a marker for developing neoplasia in the tissue such as found in cervical and prostate cancers, as well as some colorectal cancers, particularly those associated with Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer
themselves can, when chronically activated, undergo mutation that can lead to lymphoma.
Helicobacter infection is a common finding at endoscopy and although duodenal IEL counts were found to be slightly higher with this infection, this was not considered to be a meaningful cause in children. Other infections, including Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis can also be associated with an increase in
The EFS provides the legal profession with a rudimentary online case file from which documents can be electronically filed with the courts or served on the other parties in a case. The EFS is also the source for electronic cause book searches that are provided through the Litigation module of LawNet. EFS is set to be replaced by
Works: St Wenceslaus destroying the Idol Swantovit; St Albert blessing the Country; St George and the Dragon; Holy Trinity; Portraits of Ignatius Cornova,Mathematician Gerstner, Abbe Dobrowsky, the philosopher Bolzano, Historian Pelzel, the Physiologist Purkyne; the Arch Bishop of Prague 1815-1830, Vaclav Leopold Chlumcansky. Miniatures, National Museum, Munich; Hortulus Animae, and several Codices, Imperial Library, Vienna; Psalter and Offici-um in three Folio Volumes, Vatican, rome -Immerzeel,ii. 55; Kramm,iii. 747; Mich-
, vi., 406; Nagler, Mon., ii. 37
The condition is diagnosed when the proportion of lymphocytes in the epithelium of the duodenum is greater than 20-25 per 100 enterocytes. Intra-epithelial lymphocyte (IEL) numbers are normally greater in the crypts and in the jejunum; these are distinct from those found in the lamina propria of the intestinal mucosa.
are mostly T cells which recognise antigens and regulate the immune response.
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) are T cells that have a distinctive T-cell receptor (TCR) on their surface. Most T cells are αβ (alpha beta) T cells with TCR composed of two glycoprotein chains called α (alpha) and β (beta) TCR chains. In contrast, gamma delta (γδ) T cells have a TCR that is made up of one γ (gamma) chain and one δ (delta) chain. This group of T cells is usually much less common than αβ T cells, but are at their highest abundance in the gut mucosa, within a population of lymphocytes known as intraepithelial lymphocytes (
Duodenal biopsies in NCGS patients are always almost normal, which is an essential parameter for achieve a diagnosis of NCGS, although is generally accepted that a subgroup of NGCS patients may have an increased number of duodenal intraepithelial lymphocytes (
) ( ≥25/100 enterocytes), which represent Marsh I lesions. Nevertheless, Marsh I is considered compatible with celiac disease and the most frequent cause of these findings, especially in patients positive for HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotypes, is celiac disease, with a documented prevalences ranging from 16% to 43%.
Within the same study, three other proteins were identified, one of them an α-amylase inhibitor as identified by protein homology. A follow-up study showed that most celiacs have anti-avenin antibodies (AVAs), with a specificity and sensitivity comparable to anti-gliadin antibodies. A subsequent study found that these AVAs did not result from cross-reaction with wheat. However, recently it has been found that AVAs drop as soon as "Triticeae" glutens are removed from the diet. Anti-avenin antibodies declined in treated celiacs on an oat diet in 136 individuals, suggesting oats can be involved in celiac disease when wheat is present, but are not involved when wheat is removed from the diet. The study, however, did find an increased number of patients with higher intraepithelial lymphocytes (
, a type of white bloodcell) in the oat-eating cohort. Regardless of whether or not this observation is a direct allergic immune response, by itself this is essentially benign.
The Canadian Celiac Association suggests that adults can consume up to 70g of oats per day, and children up to 25g. However, two studies indicated that celiac adults could consume 93 grams (3.3 ounces) of oats per day. There is no evidence that oats can trigger GSE, only that in a small number of celiacs disease can be sustained or reinitiated by oats once triggered by wheat. A recent paper examining the IEL levels of celiac patients in remission showed a significantly higher number of
in oat-eating celiacs. In addition, antibodies to avenin remain low as long as the diet is gluten-free, but higher anti-avenin antibodies can increase with a diet containing wheat.
There is a great deal of conflicting information regarding the inclusion of oats in a gluten-free diet. Although cross-contamination in the field and during processing partially explains the different reactions that celiacs can have to oats, a recent study indicates that there are also different amounts of avenin present in different cultivars of oat. The G12 antibody used in the study is currently the only one that can reliably distinguish between varieties of oat. Previous studies have indicated both children and adult coeliacs are largely tolerant of oats. Other studies have followed both children and adults for one, two, and five years on the "uncontaminated" oat containing gluten-free diet. These studies failed to show significant changes in intestinal morphology indicative of a relapse of celiac disease. Anti-gliadin and reticulin antibodies as well as numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (
) did not differ significantly between oat-eating celiacs and non-oat-eating controls in remission. Invitro tests that are sensitive to wheat gluten found that tryptic peptides of avenin could not induce EMA production in supernatant fluid from cultured duodenal mucosa specimen from celiac patients.
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