Synonyms for iugr or Related words with iugr


Examples of "iugr"
IUGR affects 3-10% of pregnancies. 20% of stillborn infants have IUGR. Perinatal mortality rates are 4-8 times higher for infants with IUGR, and morbidity is present in 50% of surviving infants.
Children with IUGR are often found to exhibit brain reorganization including neural circuitry. Reorganization has been linked to learning and memory differences between children born at term and those born with IUGR.
Short stature of the mother and poor maternal nutrition stores increase the risk of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). However, environmental factors can weaken the effect of IUGR on cognitive performance.
IUGR is associated with a wide range of short- and long-term neurodevelopmental disorders
grey matter effects – Grey matter was also shown to be decreased in infants with IUGR at one year corrected age.
Because preeclampsia leads to a mismatch between the maternal energy supply and fetal energy demands, pre-eclampsia can lead to IUGR in the developing fetus. Infants suffering from IUGR are prone to suffer from poor neuronal development and in increased risk for adult disease according to the Barker hypothesis. Associated adult diseases of the fetus due to IUGR include, but are not limited to, coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cancer, osteoporosis, and various psychiatric illnesses.
Not all newborns that are SGA are pathologically growth restricted and, in fact, may be constitutionally small. If small for gestational age babies have been the subject of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), formerly known as intrauterine growth retardation, the term SGA associated with IUGR is used.
Placental insufficiency can affect the fetus, causing Fetal distress. Placental insufficiency may cause oligohydramnios, preeclampsia, miscarriage or stillbirth. Placental insufficiency is most frequent cause of asymmetric IUGR.
There are 2 major categories of IUGR: symmetrical and asymmetrical. Some conditions are associated with both symmetrical and asymmetrical growth restriction.
Studies have shown that children born with IUGR had lower IQ. They also exhibit other deficits that point to [frontal lobe] dysfunction.
"Asymmetrical IUGR" is more common (70%). In asymmetrical IUGR, there is restriction of weight followed by length. The head continues to grow at normal or near-normal rates (head sparing). A lack of subcutaneous fat leads to a thin and small body out of proportion with the liver. Normally at birth the brain of the fetus is 3 times the weight of its liver. In IUGR, It becomes 5-6 times. In these cases, the embryo/fetus has grown normally for the first two trimesters but encounters difficulties in the third, sometimes secondary to complications such as pre-eclampsia. Other symptoms than the disproportion include dry, peeling skin and an overly-thin umbilical cord. The baby is at increased risk of hypoxia and hypoglycaemia. This type of IUGR is most commonly caused by extrinsic factors that affect the fetus at later gestational ages. Specific causes include:
In pathology, hypertrophic decidual vasculopathy, abbreviated HDV, is the histomorphologic correlate of gestational hypertension, as may be seen in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and HELLP syndrome.
If the cause of IUGR is intrinsic to the fetus, growth is restricted due to genetic factors or as a sequela of infection.
"Symmetrical IUGR" is less common (20-25%). It is commonly known as global growth restriction, and indicates that the fetus has developed slowly throughout the duration of the pregnancy and was thus affected from a very early stage. The head circumference of such a newborn is in proportion to the rest of the body. Since most neurons are developed by the 18th week of gestation, the fetus with symmetrical IUGR is more likely to have permanent neurological sequelae. Common causes include:
If the cause of IUGR is extrinsic to the fetus (maternal or uteroplacental), transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus is decreased. This causes a reduction in the fetus’ stores of glycogen and lipids. This often leads to hypoglycemia at birth. Polycythemia can occur secondary to increased erythropoietin production caused by the chronic hypoxemia. Hypothermia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hypocalcemia, and pulmonary hemorrhage are often results of IUGR.
For IUGR (during pregnancy), possible treatments include the early induction of labor, though this is only done if the condition has been diagnosed and seen as a risk to the health of the fetus.
IUGR infants with brain-sparing show accelerated maturation of the hippocampus which is responsible for memory. This accelerated maturation can often lead to uncharacteristic development that may compromise other networks and lead to memory and learning deficiencies.
Inducing labor before 39 weeks in the absence of a medical indication, like hypertension, IUGR, or pre-eclampsia, increases the risk of complications of prematurity including difficulties with respiration, infection, feeding, jaundice, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, and perinatal death.
In another study, researchers discovered that perinatal nutrient restriction resulting in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) contributes to diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). IUGR refers to the poor growth of the baby in utero. In the pancreas, IUGR caused a reduction in the expression of the promoter of the gene encoding a critical transcription factor for beta cell function and development. Pancreatic beta cells are responsible for making insulin; decreased beta cell activity is associated with DM2 in adulthood. In skeletal muscle, IUGR caused a decrease in expression of the Glut-4 gene. The Glut-4 gene controls the production of the Glut-4 transporter; this transporter is specifically sensitive to insulin. Thus, when insulin levels rise, more glut-4 transporters are brought to the cell membrane to increase the uptake of glucose into the cell. This change is caused by histone modifications in the cells of skeletal muscle that decrease the effectiveness of the glucose transport system into the muscle. Because the main glucose transporters are not operating at optimal capacity, these individuals are more likely to develop insulin resistance with energy rich diets later in life, contributing to DM2.
Although confirmation of a specific genetic marker is in a significant number of individuals, there are no tests to clearly determine if this is what a person has. As a 'syndrome' a diagnosis is typically given for children upon confirmation of the presence of several 'symptoms' listed below. Symptoms are Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) combined with some of the following: